February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1993
BIOMASS BURNING/TROPOSPHERIC OZONE
"Seasonal Distribution of African Savanna Fires," D.R. Cahoon
Jr. (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23681), B.J. Stocks et al., Nature,
359(6398), 812-815, Oct. 29, 1992.
The temporal and spatial distributions of African savanna fires, which may
produce up to a third of the total global emissions from biomass burning, were
studied by satellite imagery. Contrary to expectations, most fires are left to
burn uncontrolled, and fires show no strong diurnal cycle.
"Geostationary Satellite Detection of Biomass Burning in South
America," E.M. Prins (Coop. Inst. Meteor. Satellite Studies, 1225 W. Dayton
St., Madison WI 53706), W.P. Menzel, Intl. J. Remote Sensing, 13(15),
2783-2799, Oct. 1992.
Presents results of using GOES satellite infrared (VAS) data to monitor
biomass burning. Although the VAS data have lower spatial resolution than AVHRR
data, this is not a constraint and in some respects is advantageous.
Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D13), Sep. 20, 1992:
"Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas
(BASE-A)," Y.J. Kaufman (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), A. Setzer,
14,581-14,599. The Sep. 1989 field experiment involved aircraft measurements of
trace gases, particles and optical properties as well as satellite observations.
Data were analyzed for emission ratios and combustion efficiency and compared to
the Northern Hemisphere. Results suggest a strong correlation between tropical
biomass burning and the formation of ozone and other trace gases.
"Smoke and Fire Characteristics for Cerrado and Deforestation Burns in
Brazil: BASE-B Experiment," D.E. Ward (Intermountain Res. Sta., USDA For.
Serv., POB 8089, Missoula MT 59807), R.A. Susott et al., 14,601-14,619. Test
fires were performed and analyzed during Aug.-Sep. 1990 in a dry, savannalike
region and a tropical moist forest of Brazil. Describes trace gases and
particles released, fuel loads and combustion factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2 and
small particles as a function of combustion efficiency.
Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D12), Aug. 20, 1992:
"Distribution of Tropospheric Ozone at Brazzaville, Congo, Determined
from Ozonesonde Measurements," B. Cros (Lab. Phys. Atmos., Faculté
Sci., Univ. Maien Ngouabi, BP 69, Brazzaville, Congo), D. Nganga et al.,
12,869-12,875. Analysis of 33 ozonesonde launches shows that tropospheric ozone
is highest between June and early October, coincident with the dry season and
widespread burning. Total ozone may be a better indicator of the amount of ozone
in the troposphere than are surface measurements.
"Vertical Profiles of Ozone between 0 and 400 Meters in and above the
African Equatorial Forest," B. Cros (addr. immed. above), J. Fontan et al.,
12,877-12,887. Analyzes measurements taken in the northern Congo during the
DECAFE experiment in Feb. 1988, and compares them to similar data from the
southern Congo. Diurnal variations are discussed. Relates ozone to photochemical
reactions involving precursors from soils and biomass burning.
Two items from J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 54(5), May 1992.
"Excess Ozone Production in Amazonia from Large-Scale Burnings,"
V.W.J.H. Kirchoff (Inst. Nacl. Pesquisas Espaciais, CP 515, Sao José
Campos, SP, Brazil), Y. Nakamura et al., 583-588. Examines ozone production
related to dry-season biomass burning through seasonal measurements of O3 and CO
in the burning regions, comparison of wet and dry season results, ozone profile
"Distribution of Tropospheric Ozone in the Tropics from Satellite and
Ozonesonde Measurements," J. Fishman (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley,
Hampton VA 23681), V.G. Brackett, K. Fakhruzzaman, 589-597. Investigates an
ozone anomaly observed in the southern tropical regions of Africa using
ozonesonde measurements from Ascension Island, downwind of the likely source of
the ozone. Results confirm that much of the ozone generated over central and
southern Africa during the burning season (July-October) reaches Ascension
Island. Another maximum in February may be related to sources in western and
"Ozone Production Potential Following Convective Redistribution of
Biomass Burning Emissions," K.E. Pickering (Univ. Space Res. Assoc.,
NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), A.M. Thompson et al., J. Atmos. Chem.,
14(1-4), 297-313, Apr. 1992.
The effects of deep convection on the potential for forming ozone in the
free troposphere were investigated using cloud dynamical and photochemical
simulations based on data from 1980 and 1985 Brazilian campaigns. One case shows
that entrainment of a layer polluted with biomass burning into a convective
squall line changes the free tropospheric cloud outflow ozone destruction
potential from net destruction to net production.
"Evaluation of a Technique for Satellite-Derived Area Estimation of
Forest Fires," D.R. Cahoon Jr. (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), B.J.
Stocks et al., J. Geophys. Res., 97(D4), 3805-3814, Mar. 20,
1992. Discusses application of AVHRR data to determine the geographic extent of
burning, evaluates errors, and applies to the Yellowstone fires of 1988.
"Large Perturbations of Ammonium and Organic Acids Content in the
Summit-Greenland Ice Core. Fingerprint from Forest Fires?" M. Legrand (Lab.
Glaciol., BP 96, 38402 St. Martin d'Hères Cedex, France), M. De Angelis
et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(5), 473-475, Mar. 3, 1992.
Continuous ammonium measurements were performed on sections of ice core
spanning 330 to 2,500 years B.P. Concentrations show a seasonal range of 1-20 ng
g-1 with sporadic values up to 600 ng g-1, probably reflecting biomass burning.
"A Regional Estimate of Convective Transport of CO from Biomass
Burning," K.E. Pickering (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), J.R. Scala et
al., ibid., 19(3), 289-292, Feb. 7, 1992.
Calculations from a 2-D dynamical--microphysical model and satellite
observations of biomass burning pollution and cloud cover provide an estimate of
vertical CO transport for a heavily deforested section of Brazil. Estimates that
10%-40% of CO emissions are rapidly transported to the free troposphere, where
they would efficiently produce ozone.
"Ozone Budget over the Amazon: Regional Effects from Biomass Burning
Emissions," J.L. Richardson (NASA-Langley, MS 401A, Hampton VA 23665), J.
Fishman, G.L. Gregory, J. Geophys. Res., 96(D7), 13,073-13,087,
July 20, 1991.
A 1-D, time-dependent photochemical model is used in conjunction with data
obtained during the dry season to simulate tropospheric chemistry, especially
the role of hydrocarbons in haze from burning. Regional transport of haze is an
important factor explaining the increase of ozone observed annually during that
"Influence of Biomass Burning on Equatorial African Rains," H.
Cachier (Ctr. Faibles Radioactivités, CNRS-CEA, Ave. terrasse, 91198
Gif-sur-Yvette, France), J. Ducret, Nature, 352(6332), 228-230,
July 18, 1991.
Presents measurements of particulate black carbon, an unambiguous indicator
of combustion, in rainwater collected at a remote site in the Northern Congo.
Smoke particles may act as cloud condensation nuclei, playing a part in cloud
formation and hence precipitation in the tropics.
"Emissions of N2O from the Burning of Biomass in an Experimental
System," W.M. Hao (Fire Sci. Lab., USDA For. Serv., POB 8089, Missoula MT
59807), D. Scharffe et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 18(6),
999-1002, June 1991.
Results of experimental open burning of savanna grass, straw, hay, oak, pine
needles and pine forest litter show that about 2.7 x 1011 g of N2O-N are
produced annually from burning biomass, contributing only 2% to the global
source of N2O.
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