February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1993
IMPACTS OF CO2
Special issue: "Responses of Vegetation to Elevated
Atmospheric Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide," Australian J. Botany,
40(4-5), 1992. Single issues $A40 ($US40); contact Managing Editor, POB
89, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia.
Contains 20 reviewed papers from a symposium in Canberra, Sep. 1991, in five
categories: sources and sinks of CO2; Rubisco biochemistry and genetic
engineering of plants for elevated CO2; plant responses under different
environmental conditions; interactions within natural communities; ecological
modeling and environmental planning.
Special issue: "FACE: Free-Air CO2 Enrichment for Plant
Research in the Field," G.R. Hendrey (Brookhaven Nat. Lab., Upton NY
11973), Guest Ed., Critical Rev. in Plant Sci., 11(2-3), 308
pp., 1992. This issue will also be published in book form, by CRC Press, 200
Corp. Blvd. NW, Boca Raton FL 33431 (800-272-7737).
The FACE program has two principal missions: to evaluate the effects of
elevated CO2 on plants and ecosystems, and evaluate how plant-atmosphere
interactions may regulate the increase of atmospheric CO2. Seventeen chapters
present the rationale underlying the program, the historical development of
free-air controlled fumigation systems, apparatus developed for the program,
experimental costs, and research results through 1989, including effects of
elevated CO2 on cotton.
Two items from Nature, 361(6407), Jan. 7, 1993:
"Plant Responses to Carbon Dioxide," K.D.M. McConnaughay (Dept.
Biol., Bradley Univ., Peoria IL 61625) et al., p. 24. Discussion on whether
growing plants in small pots limits their response to changes in CO2.
"Increase in C3 Plant Water-Use Efficiency and Biomass over Glacial to
Present CO2 Concentrations," H.W. Polley (Agric. Res. Serv., 808 E.
Blackland Rd., Temple TX 76502), H.B. Johnson et al., 61-64. Exposure of oats,
wild mustard and wheat plants to various CO2 levels shows that the rise in
atmospheric CO2 over the last 18,000 years has enhanced biospheric carbon
fixation and altered species abundances, by increasing the water-use efficiency
of biomass production of C3 plants, the bulk of the Earth's vegetation.
"Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Exposed to Nitrogen
Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide," G. Gupta (Dept. Agric. Sci., Univ.
Maryland-Eastern Shore, Princess Anne MD 21853), Y. Li, R. Sandhu, J.
Environ. Qual., 21(4), 624-626, Oct.-Dec. 1992.
Plants were exposed for five days to levels of NO2 (0.1 M M-1) and CO2 (450
M M-1) that can be expected in the next 50-100 years, singly and in combination.
The stimulatory effect of N2O alone on the parameters studied was reduced when
combined with elevated CO2.
"Responses to Elevated Carbon Dioxide in Artificial Tropical
Ecosystems," C. Körner (Dept. Botany, Univ. Basel, Schönbeinstr.
6, CH-4056 Basel, Switz.), J.A. Arnone III, Science, 257(5877),
1672-1675, Sep. 18, 1992.
No significant influence was observed for stand biomass, leaf area index and
certain metabolic factors; major CO2 effects included starch accumulation in the
canopy tops, increased fine-root production, and doubled CO2 evolution from the
soil. Results emphasize the urgent need for whole-system experimental
"Shrubland Expansion in the American Southwest," S.B. Idso
(U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., Phoenix AZ 85040), Clim. Change, 22(1),
85-86, Sep. 1992. Another hypothesis for the phenomenal expansion of brush and
shrublands observed over the past two centuries in the American Southwest is
stimulation by the contemporaneous increase of atmospheric CO2 content.
"Growth and Gas Exchange of Oats (Avena sativa) and Wild
Mustard (Brassica kaber) at Subambient CO2 Concentrations," H.W.
Polley (USDA-ARS, Grassland Res. Lab., Temple TX 76502), H.B. Johnson, H.S.
Mayeux, Intl. J. Plant Sci., 153(3), 453-461, Sep. 1992.
Plants were grown at 150 to 330 M M-1 to determine effects of subambient CO2
on leaf gas exchange, biomass production and competitive interactions of these
C3 species. Results indicate that the 27% rise in CO2 since the start of the
nineteenth century may have profoundly altered the productivity of C3 plants.
"Photosynthesis in Willows (Salix x dasyclados) Grown at
Different CO2 Concentrations and Fertilization Levels," J. Silvola (Dept.
Biol., Univ. Joensuu, POB 111, SF-80101 Joensuu, Finland), U. Ahlholm, Oecologia,
91(2), 208-213, Aug. 1992.
Four-month experiments at four nutrient levels and CO2 concentrations up to
1000 ppm showed that photosynthesis became saturated at lower light intensities
in lower CO2, and that the CO2 effect was greater at higher temperatures.
"Plant Nutrition and Growth Regulation by CO2 Enrichment," B.
Grodzinski, Bioscience, 42(7), 517-525, July-Aug. 1992.
Assesses the role of CO2 as the primary nutrient for growth, and its
possible role as a major regulator of plant developmental processes. The effects
of high CO2 on a plant are the consequence of many direct and indirect
"Comparison of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration and
Metabolic Activity in Boreal Forest Ecosystems," G.B. Bonan (NCAR, POB
3000, Boulder CO 80307), Tellus, 44B(3), 173-185, July 1992.
A mechanistic model of photosynthesis, respiration and decomposition was
driven with the observed annual increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, daily
temperature and precipitation over the period 1974-1982. Results show that a
larger seasonal amplitude of CO2 can occur without large changes in net primary
production, nutrient availability or nutrient use efficiency.
"Canopy Photosynthesis and Evapotranspiration of Rangeland Plants
under Doubled Carbon Dioxide in Closed-Top Chambers," D. Nie, ...M.B.
Kirkham (Evapotranspiration Lab., Dept. Agron., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan KS
66506) et al., Agric. For. Meteor., 61, 205-217, 1992.
Results of tests with predominantly warm season, C4 plants are consistent
with previous findings showing no augmentation of the photosynthetic rate of
rangeland plants and alleviation of water stress effects at elevated CO2, and
suggest that as CO2 increases, water loss from rangelands will be reduced.
"Root and Shoot Weight in a Tallgrass Prairie under Elevated Carbon
Dioxide," G. Mo, ...M.B. Kirkham (addr. immed. above) et al., Environ.
Exper. Bot., 32(3), 193-201, 1992.
Tallgrass prairie vegetation was grown for two seasons at either high or low
water level. The CO2 and water treatments had no significant effect on root dry
weight in the 0-40 cm depth; doubled CO2 reduced root dry weight and length in
the 0-10 cm depth under high water level. Warm-season, C4 grasses had the
highest shoot dry weight, which was greatest under the high water, ambient CO2
"Response of Acer saccharum Seedlings to Elevated Carbon
Dioxide and Ozone," R. Noble (Dept. Biol., Bowling Green State Univ.,
Bowling Green OH 43403), K.F. Jensen et al., Ohio J. Sci., 92(3),
60-62, June 1992.
After 85 days of exposure, net photosynthesis measured on initial and
recently formed leaves tended to increase with CO2. Ozone at 0.15 ppm did not
have an impact on either net photosynthesis or growth, but with ozone treatment
biomass increased at elevated CO2.
"Stomatal Conductance, Photosynthesis and Respiration of Temperate
Deciduous Tree Seedlings Grown Outdoors at an Elevated Concentration of Carbon
Dioxide," J.A. Bunce (USDA-ARS, Clim. Stress Lab., Beltsville Res. Ctr.,
Beltsville MD 20705), Plant, Cell, Environ., 15(5), 541-549,
Stomatal conductance for plants grown at 700 ppm CO2 did not differ from
those grown at 350 ppm in Malus domestica, Quercus prinus and
Quercus robur. Elevated CO2 caused lower conductances only at
temperatures above 33·C. All species had lower rates of dark respiration
per unit mass at elevated CO2.
"CO2 Enhancement of Growth and Photosynthesis in Rice (Oryza
sativa)--Modification by Increased Ultraviolet-B Radiation," L.H. Ziska
(Dept. Bot., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), A.H. Teramura, Plant
Physiol., 99(2), 473-481, June 1992.
Two cultivars of rice showed decreased nighttime respiration and increased
photosynthesis, total biomass and yield at elevated CO2, but in the presence of
increased UV-B as well, the latter three effects were eliminated in one cultivar
and reduced in the other. Alterations in rice growth or photosynthesis may be
eliminated or reduced if UV-B radiation continues to increase from ozone
"Effect of Elevated CO2 on the Photosynthesis, Respiration and
Growth of Perennial Ryegrass," G.J.A. Ryle (44 Webster Close, Maidenhead,
Berks. SL6 4NW, UK), C.E. Powell, V. Tewson, J. Exper. Bot., 43(251),
811-818, June 1992.
Plants grown for 49 days at 680 ppm CO2 initially grew faster than their
counterparts grown at 340 ppm, but the effect diminished and final plant weights
differed by only about 10%. The lack of a pronounced effect of elevated CO2 on
plant growth was primarily due to the lack of an influence on tiller numbers.
"Elevated CO2 Differentially Alters the Responses to Co-Occurring
Birch and Maple Seedlings to a Moisture Gradient," S.L. Miao, P.M. Wayne,
F.A. Bazzaz (Dept. Organismic & Evolutionary Biol., Harvard Univ., 15
Divinity Ave., Cambridge MA 02138), Oecologia, 90(2), 300-304,
Seedlings grown along a moisture gradient ranging from extreme drought to
flooded conditions showed enhanced growth at elevated CO2 contingent on soil
moisture and differing for the two species. Results highlight the utility of
experiments combining CO2 levels with gradients of other resources to elucidate
the potential consequences of elevated CO2 on species distributions and
interactions in natural communities.
"Diurnal Changes in the Response of Canopy Photosynthetic Rate to
Elevated CO2 in a Coupled Temperature-Light Environment," I. Nijs (Univ.
Insteling Antwerp, Dept. Biol., Univ. Plein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belg.), I.
Impens, P. Vanhecke, Photosyn. Res., 32(2), 121-130, May 1992.
CO2 uptake rate was on average twice as large at 626 compared to 358 ppm, a
difference determined primarily by temperature rather than light. Afternoon
depression in CO2 uptake was alleviated by elevated CO2.
"Changes in Leaf 13C of Herbarium Plant Species during the Last
Three Centuries of CO2 Increase," J. Penuelas (Inst. Recerca & Technol.
Agroalimentaries, Carretera Cabrils S-N, E-08034 Cabrils, Spain), J. Azconbieto,
Plant, Cell, Environ., 15(4), 485-489, May 1992.
Values of 13C were determined for specimens of trees, plants and shrubs
collected during the last 240 years in Catalonia, Spain. Results suggest that
either C assimilation rates have increased or stomatal conductance has
decreased, and hence there has been an increase in water use efficiency over the
last few decades.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations