February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1993
IMPACTS OF UV-B: PHYTOPLANKTON AND BACTERIA
"Biological Weighting Function for the Inhibition of Phytoplankton
Photosynthesis by Ultraviolet Radiation," J.J. Cullen (Dept. Oceanog.,
Dalhousie Univ., Halifax NS B3H 4J1, Can.), P.J. Neale, M.P. Lesser, Science,
258(5082), 646ff., Oct. 23, 1992.
Measurements from an experimental system were fit to an analytical model to
create a spectral weighting function for predicting the short-term effects of
ozone depletion on aquatic photosynthesis. Model application suggests that the
Antarctic ozone hole might reduce near-surface photosynthesis by 12%-15%, but
less at depth.
"Long-Term Dosimetry of Solar UV Radiation in Antarctica with Spores
of Bacillus subtilis," M. Puskeppeleit (DLR PT USF, Sudstr. 125,
W-5300 Bonn 2, Ger.), L.E. Quintern et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol.,
58(8), 2355-2359, Aug. 1992.
A biological test system based on the UV sensitivity of a DNA
repair-deficient bacterial strain was exposed to solar radiation at an Antarctic
station. Results show strong seasonality in daily UV-B levels; exposures at
periods of extreme ozone depletion gave higher biologically harmful UV-B levels
than expected from calculations.
"Studies on the Effects of UV-B Radiation on Phytoplankton of
Sub-Antarctic Lakes and Ponds," N.G.A. Ekelund (Dept. Plant Physiol., Box
7007, Univ. Lund, S-22007 Lund 7, Swed.), Polar Biol., 12(5),
533-537, Oct. 1992.
Motility and growth of phytoplankton were studied in lakes and ponds on the
island of South Georgia (54·S, 36·W). After four hours each of solar
and artificial UV radiation, swimming velocity of Cryptomonas sp.
decreased; growth rate of Botryococcus, Lyngbya sp. and Staurastrum
sp. were not altered. Large amounts of humic substances in the ponds absorbed UV
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