February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1993
GENERAL INTEREST--POLICY AND SCIENCE
"Strategies for Addressing Climate Change: Policy Perspectives from
around the World," M.D. Levine (Energy Analysis Prog., Lawrence Berkeley
Lab., Berkeley CA 94720), J.A. Sathaye et al., Energy, 17(12),
1121-1136, Dec. 1992.
Surveys attitudes and policy responses among nations, based in part on a
series of papers commissioned by the Electric Power Research Institute. Since
opinion is widespread that mitigation of climate change can conflict with
economic goals, policies should be implemented that are good ideas independent
of greenhouse gas considerations. What is feasible to accomplish depends on the
changing attitudes of citizens of the world, and evaluations such as this one
should be carried out routinely and made available to global policy makers.
Suggests research on costs and on institutional issues.
"An Optimal Transition Path for Controlling Greenhouse Gases,"
W.D. Nordhaus (Econ. Dept., Yale Univ., New Haven CT 06520), Science,
258(5080), 1315-1319, Nov. 20, 1992.
Demonstrates, using the DICE (dynamic integrated climate-economy) model, how
the tools of optimal economic growth analysis can be used to evaluate the global
economic costs and benefits of different environmental control strategies.
Evaluation of five alternative policies suggests that a modest carbon tax would
be an efficient approach to slow global warming and would entail lower overall
costs than taking no action, while rigid approaches for stabilizing emissions or
climate would impose significant net economic costs. The advantage of
geoengineering over other policies is enormous, assuming the existence of
environmentally benign geoengineering options.
"Possibility of an Arctic Ozone Hole in a Doubled-CO2 Climate,"
J. Austin (Meteor. Off., London Rd., Bracknell RG12 2SZ, UK), N. Butchart, K.P.
Shine, Nature, 360(6401), 221-225, Nov. 19, 1992.
Results from a numerical model of the Northern Hemisphere winter
stratosphere show that doubled CO2 leads to the formation of an Arctic ozone
hole comparable to that observed over Antarctica, because the expected cooling
of the lower stratosphere increases the formation of polar stratospheric clouds.
(Implications of the work are discussed by J.D. Mahlman on pp. 209-210.)
Two items from Nature, 360(6404), Dec. 10, 1992:
"IPCC Strategies Unfair to the South," J.K. Parikh (Gandhi Inst.
Development Res., Goregaon (East), Bombay 400 065, India), 507-508.
Assumptions concerning future growth rates of different regions for the IPCC
reference scenario should have considered who has responsibility for reducing
emissions, who needs more energy for development, and who has reached a stage
where emission growth rates are already reduced. Suggestions are made for
reducing such unfairness to developing countries in post-Rio activities.
"Deriving Global Climate Sensitivity from Palaeoclimate
Reconstructions," M.I. Hoffert (Dept. Appl. Sci., New York Univ., New York
NY 10003), C. Covey, 573-576.
Uncertainties in climate model estimates of the expected change in surface
temperature due to a doubling of CO2 range from 1.5· to 4.5·C, largely
because of uncertainties in how the models handle cloud processes. This gives an
alternative estimate based on paleoclimatic analysis of 2.3· ± 0.9·C,
consistent with model results and inferences from other work. Further analysis
of the geological record may lead to more precise estimates of climate
sensitivity. (This paper is discussed by E.J. Barron on p. 533.)
"The Use of Iron and Other Trace-Element Fertilizers in Mitigating
Global Warming," J.R. Benemann (1212 Kelley Ct., Pinole CA 94564), J.
Plant Nutrition, 15(10), 2277-2313, 1992.
Reviews approaches to increasing CO2 sequestration. Since long-term studies
are needed on ocean fertilization with iron, this is not currently an option for
mitigation. However, forest fertilization with trace elements and even major
nutrients could be an affordable and near-term method for reducing future global
"The Heard Island Feasibility Test," A. Baggeroer (Dept. Ocean
Eng., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), W. Munk, Physics Today,
22-30, Sep. 1992.
Presents results of a field experiment which demonstrated that coded
underwater acoustic signals can be received world-wide and serve as a method for
measuring global ocean warming. Such measurements could also help improve
climate models. Discusses future experiments and establishment of a world-wide
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations