February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 7-8, JULY-AUGUST 1993
"Global Surface Air
Temperature Variations during the Twentieth Century," The Holocene.
"Part 1. Spatial, Temporal and Seasonal Details," P.D. Jones
(Clim. Res., Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), K.R. Briffa, 2(2),
165-179, 1992. A detailed review of uncertainties inherent in the instrumental
record over the last 140 years, particularly the need to adjust early sea
surface temperature data to account for changes in the measurement method.
Concludes the world has warmed by about 0.5ĚC since the nineteenth century.
"Part 2. Implications for Large-Scale, High-Frequency Palaeoclimatic
Studies," K.R. Briffa (address immed. above), P.D. Jones, 3(1),
77-88, 1993. Traditional inferences on global mean temperature change based on
regional proxies around the margins of the North Atlantic must be viewed with
some caution, because information on temperature change over the oceans,
particularly in the tropics, is necessary for accurately portraying global mean
change. The seasonality of response is important when integrating evidence from
different climate proxies; inferring annual temperature change on the basis
of summer-responsive data is highly questionable.
"A New Perspective
on Recent Global Warming: Asymmetric Trends of Daily Maximum and Minimum
Temperature," T.R. Karl (NCDC-NOAA, Fed. Bldg., Asheville NC 28801), P.D.
Jones et al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74(6), 1007-1023, June
Analysis of a recently augmented data set covering over 37% of the global
landmass shows that, from 1951 to 1990, the rise of the daily minimum
temperature has occurred at a rate three times that of the maximum temperature.
Although links to large-scale climate forcings such as sulfate aerosols,
greenhouse gases or biomass burning remain tentative, the result is clearly
important both scientifically and practically.
Climate Change in Europe," R.C. Balling Jr. (Dept. Geog., Arizona State
Univ., Tempe AZ 85287), S.B. Idso, Environ. Conserv., 19(4),
349-353, Winter 1992.
European temperature and precipitation data show trends observed in previous
studies of the authors for the U.S. and British Isles: precipitation begins to
increase at about the time that Northern Hemispheric SO2 emissions begin their
rapid rise, while prior upward trends of surface air temperature are abruptly
truncated. These and other observations support the premise that anthropogenic
climate change is occurring in Europe, but it may well be SO2-induced
rather than CO2-induced.
Measurements Constraining the Role of Sulphate Aerosols in Mid-Latitude Ozone
Depletion," D.W. Fahey (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303),
S.R. Kawa et al., Nature, 363(6429), 509-514, June 10, 1993.
Measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosol, reactive nitrogen and
chlorine concentrations at middle latitudes confirm the importance of aerosol
surface reactions that convert active nitrogen to a less active, reservoir form,
making mid-latitude stratospheric ozone less vulnerable to active nitrogen and
more vulnerable to chlorine species. Increases in aerosol concentration
following volcanic eruptions will have only a limited effect on ozone depletion
at these latitudes.
Cycle," J.L. Sarmiento (Geol. Sci., Princeton Univ., Princeton NJ
08544), Chem. Eng. News, 30-43, May 31, 1993. (A special report for
which reprints are available, $10 per copy, from Distribution, Rm. 210, Amer.
Chem. Soc., 1155 16th St. NW, Washington DC 20036.)
A comprehensive summary by a prominent researcher in the field, covering
current understanding, recent developments, and directions of future work, set
in the context of global warming concerns.
Two items from Clim.
Change, 23(4), Apr. 1993, both concerning the satellite altimetry
data of Zwally et al. (1989) which suggests that the Greenland ice sheet has
thickened in recent years, much more than others have estimated.
"Is the Greenland Ice Sheet Getting Thicker?" R.J. Braithwaite
(Greenland Geol. Survey, Copenhagen, Denmark), 379-381. Comments on the
following paper by van der Veen, stressing the need for more information on the
topic and for better communication between remote sensing researchers and
"Interpretations of Short-Term Ice Sheet Elevation Changes Inferred
from Satellite Altimetry," C.J. van der Veen (Byrd Polar Res. Ctr., Ohio
State Univ., Columbus OH 43210), 383-405. Applies a simple model for
interpreting the results of Zwally et al., and concludes that there is an
unidentified source of error in their results.
Viewed from Devil's Hole," J. Imbrie (Dept. Geol., Brown Univ., Providence
RI 02912), A.C. Mix, D.G. Martinson, Nature,
363(6429), 531-534, June 10, 1993.
Relates to a paper by Winograd et al. (Global Climate Change Digest,
p. 212, Dec. 1992), which calls into question the Milankovich theory of climatic
fluctuations. This paper demonstrates that applying the Devils Hole chronology
involved to ocean cores requires physically implausible changes in sedimentation
rate, contradicting the conclusions of Winograd et al.
Setting the Stage for Mission to Planet Earth," H.F. Eden (Astro-Space
Div., Martin Marietta Corp., POB 800, Princeton NJ 08543), B.P. Elero, J.N.
Perkins, Eos, 74(26), 281, 285, June 19, 1993. Summarizes the
instrumentation and observational histories of the Nimbus 1 through 7
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations