February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 7-8, JULY-AUGUST 1993
CO2 REDUCTION ANALYSES
and Unfairness of Tradable CO2 Permits," J.D. Erickson (Dept.
Agric. Econ., Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14850), World Resour. Rev., 5(2),
This analysis illustrates the likelihood of international permit market
failure and the unfair and the inefficient consequences of international
application of a tradable permit scheme. Suggests promoting the profitability of
abatement in the developed world and a restructuring of development aid instead
of a single market approach.
Effectiveness of CO2 Emission Reduction Achieved by Energy
Conservation," K. Blok (Dept. Sci. Technol. Soc., Utrecht Univ., POB
800093, NL-3508 TB Utrecht, Neth.), E. Worrell et al., Energy Policy,
21(6), 656-667, June 1993.
An analysis for the Netherlands incorporating 300 energy conservation
techniques shows that the Dutch government's policy to increase energy
efficiency by about 20% between 1990 and 2000 is feasible with net negative
costs. However, stronger incentives for energy conservation are required.
Agreements: A Cost-Effective Approach," S. Kverndokk (Res. Dept., Central
Bur. Statistics, POB 8131 Dep., N-0033 Oslo, Norway), The Energy J.,
14(2), 91-112, 1993.
Under the cost-effective agreement analyzed, industrialized countries would
bear all emission reductions; nevertheless developing countries would bear the
highest burdens even though they would be allowed to increase emissions.
Examines disadvantages of tradable permit systems. An allocation based on
historical CO2 emissions is the only simple rule which ensures every
region is better off than under uniform percentage reductions.
Production by the UK Economy: An Input-Output Assessment," P.W. Gay (Dept.
Econ., Univ. Keele, Keele ST5 5BG, UK), J.L.R. Proops, Appl. Energy,
44(2), 113-130, 1993.
The model is based on the U.K. Input-Output Tables for 1984, but at a higher
level of aggregation. Discusses the possibility of using the model to explore
the effect of varying the balance between fossil fuel and other forms of
electricity generation, and of changing the composition of final demand for
goods and services.
Costs in New England's Power Sector," F. Krause (Energy Environ. Div.,
Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720), J. Busch, J.G. Koomey, Contemporary
Policy Issues, 11(2), 100-112, Apr. 1993.
Relies on detailed sectoral studies of costs and resource potentials for
demand-side efficiency, cogeneration, renewables and conventional resource
options. Shows that New England's power sector can freeze carbon emissions at
current levels or reduce carbon emissions while simultaneously decreasing
customers' total electricity bills.
"An Updated Shadow
Price for CO2," J. Haraden (149 Eleventh St., Del Mar CA
92014), Energy, 18(3), 303-307, Mar. 1993.
Substantially revises a previous model with an improved representation for
the assumed linearity of the damages from atmospheric CO2 levels,
and with incorporation of an adjustment period for the atmosphere to reach
thermal equilibrium with CO2 levels.
"Costs of Reducing
CO2 Emissions by Means of Hydrogen Energy," P.A. Okken
(Netherlands Energy Res. Found., ECN, Petten, Neth.), Intl. Hydrogen Energy,
18(4), 319-323, Apr. 1993.
Uses scenario calculations and sensitivity analyses to discuss economical
and technical aspects of two options for producing hydrogen without CO2
emissions: natural gas reforming with CO2 disposal in depleted
natural gas reservoirs, and electrolysis using CO2-free electricity.
to Reduce Carbon Dioxide in China," J.-P. Huang (Beijing Econ. Res. Inst.
of Water Resour. & Elec. Pwr. (BERI), 21 Wenhua Ln., Xidan, Beijing 100031,
PRC), Energy, 18(3), 281-287, Mar. 1993.
Gives a detailed analysis of the exploitable potential of hydropower,
nuclear power and new energy sources (solar, wind, geothermal, tidal energy),
from 1990 to 2020. About 38% of China's total CO2 emission could be
eliminated by 2020 through the use of these non-coal sources.
Two articles from The
Energy J., 14(1), 1993:
"Growth and Welfare Losses from Carbon Emissions Restrictions: A
General Equilibrium Analysis for Egypt," C. Blitzer (The World Bank, 1818 H
St. NW, Washington DC 20433), R. Eckaus et al. 57-82. Considers some issues not
considered in previous analyses. Demonstrates that, while annual emissions
constraints have only a modest effect on long-run economic growth rates, they
have substantial effect on the achieved levels of GDP and welfare.
"An Analysis of the Macro-Economic Costs of Various CO2
Emission Control Policies in Japan," N. Goto (Faculty Econ., Kanazawa
Univ., Ishikawa, Japan 920-11), T. Sawa, 83-110. Application of a long-term
general equilibrium model shows that if the economy adjusts efficiently, the
macro-economic costs incurred by emission controls are not very large, and that
a carbon tax is the most effective method to achieve a proposed target.
"The Reduction of
Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Austria: Policy, Plans and Scenarios," A.E.
Hackl (Chair, CO2 Committee, Austria), World Resour. Rev.,
4(2), 141-155, 1993.
Summarizes the work of the federally-coordinated Austrian CO2
Committee. Analyzes CO2 emissions by contributing sectors, and
effective scenarios for reduction. Specifies actions that are required by
utilities and industry, the transport and residential sectors, and local and
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations