February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 7-8, JULY-AUGUST 1993
Special Section: "The
Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS)," J. Geophys. Res., 98(D6),
June 20, 1993. Contains 10 papers, in addition to the following one, giving
details on instruments and their performances.
"The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Mission," C.A.
Reber (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), C.E. Trevathan, 10,643-10,647.
Describes the goals, design, performance and data handling for the UARS.
Three items from J.
Geophys. Res., 98(D6), June 20, 1993:
"A 4-Year Climatology of Stratospheric Ozone from Lidar Measurements at
Table Mountain, 34.4·N," I.S. McDermid (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak
Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), 10,509-10,515. Presents results of 435
independent profiles, constituting a pre-Pinatubo ozone climatology, and
evaluates their quality.
"Absorption of Solar Radiation by O2: Implications for O3 and Lifetimes
of N2O, CFCl3, and CF2Cl2," K. Minschwaner (NCAR, POB 3000,
Boulder CO 80307), R.J. Salawitch, M.B. McElroy, 10,543-10,561. Uses an accurate
line-by-line model to evaluate effects of absorption in the Schumann-Runge bands
of O2 on UV radiation, along with photochemical calculations.
"Fourier Transform Infrared Studies of the Interaction of HCl with
Model Polar Stratospheric Cloud Films," B.G. Koehler (CIRES, Univ.
Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), L.S. McNeill et al., 10,563-10,571. At temperatures
similar to those found in the stratosphere, experiments found no bulk HCl uptake
by ice or nitric acid trihydrate.
Measurements Constraining the Role of Sulphate Aerosols in Mid-Latitude Ozone
Depletion," D.W. Fahey, S.R. Kawa et al.,
Nature, 363(6429), 509-514, June 10, 1993. (See Gen.
Measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosol, reactive nitrogen and
chlorine concentrations at middle latitudes confirm the importance of aerosol
surface reactions that convert active nitrogen to a less active, reservoir form,
making mid-latitude stratospheric ozone less vulnerable to active nitrogen and
more vulnerable to chlorine species. Increases in aerosol concentration
following volcanic eruptions will have only a limited effect on ozone depletion
at these latitudes.
Three items from Geophys.
Res. Lett., 20(10), May 21, 1993:
"Raman Dial Measurements for Stratospheric Ozone in the Presence of
Volcanic Aerosols," T.J. McGee (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), M. Gross
et al., 955-958. A lidar instrument has been modified to permit measurement of
ozone profiles between 15 and 50 km, which had been precluded by the presence of
"The `Minihole' Event on 6. Feb. 1990: Influence of Mie Scattering on
the Evaluation of Spectroscopic Measurements," M. Fiedler (Inst.
Umweltphys., INF 366, D-6900 Heidelberg, Ger.), H. Frank et al., 959-962.
Demonstrates the sensitivity of ground measurements to polar stratospheric cloud
layers, and how they can be corrected to obtain total ozone column data.
"Groundbased Spectroscopic Measurements of Stratospheric NO2 and OClO
in Arctic Winter 1989/90," M. Fiedler (address above), H. Frank et al.,
Chemistry on Antarctic Polar Stratospheric Clouds: A Microphysical Estimate of
the Extent of Chemical Processing," K. Drdla (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ.
California, Los Angeles CA 90024), R.P. Turco, S. Elliott, J. Geophys. Res.,
98(D5), 8965-8981, May 20, 1993.
A detailed model, which includes nucleation, condensational growth and
sedimentation, shows that the presence and surface area of type 1 PSCs early in
the winter are crucial in determining ozone depletion.
Two items from Geophys.
Res. Lett., 20(8), Apr. 23, 1993:
"HALOE Antarctic Observations in the Spring of 1991," J.M. Russell
III (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), A.F. Tuck et al., 719-722. Presents
observations of O3, CH4, HF, H2O, NO, NO2 and HCl in the Antarctic
ozone hole and during its recovery.
"Potential Impact of Combined NOx and SOx Emissions from Future High
Speed Civil Transport Aircraft on Stratospheric Aerosols and Ozone," S.
Bekki (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK),
J.A. Pyle, 723-726.
A 2-D sulfate aerosol model shows that an aircraft fleet may double the
aerosol surface area, leading to a reduction in ozone sensitivity to NOx and an
enhancement in sensitivity to chlorine in the lower stratosphere.
"Freezing Points of
H2SO4 Aqueous Solutions and Formation of Stratospheric Ice Clouds," H.
Ohtake (Geophys. Inst., Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks AK 99775), Tellus, 45B(2),
138-144, Apr. 1993.
New experimental measurements suggest that the formation of ice crystals in
polar stratospheric clouds is the result of condensation of water vapor and
subsequent freezing of natural H2SO4 aerosols.
Four items from J.
Geophys. Res., 98(D4), Apr. 20, 1993:
"A Three-Dimensional Modeling Study of Trace Species in the Arctic
Lower Stratosphere during Winter 1989-1990," M.P. Chipperfield (Ctr. Atmos.
Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), D. Cariolle, P.
Simon, 7199-7218. Gives extensive results from a series of 10-day integrations
with a radiative-dynamical-chemical model that includes representation of
heterogeneous processes. The efficiency of the catalytic cycles responsible for
ozone loss is analyzed as a function of latitude, altitude and time.
"Visible and Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy at McMurdo Station,
Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991," R.W.
Sanders (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), S. Solomon et al.,
7219-7228. The first spectroscopic measurements of ClO through the Antarctic
fall, winter and spring also reveal high levels of OClO and ozone loss during
winter, which is likely to increase in the future as atmospheric loadings of Cl
and Br compounds rise.
"TOVS Observations of a Stratospheric Cooling during the CHEOPS 3
Campaign: February 4-6, 1990, over Scandinavia," C. Claud (Lab. Météor.
Dyn., Ecole Polytech., 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France), J. Ovarlez et al.,
7229-7243. Compares temperature retrievals using an improved inversion
technique for satellite measurements to other sources of temperature data.
Presents evidence of upper tropospheric forcing partly responsible for ozone
"Inverse Theory for Occultation Measurements. 1. Spectral Inversion,"
E. Kyrölä (Finnish Meteor. Inst., POB 503, SF-00101 Helsinki,
Finland), E. Sihvola et al., 7367-7381. Investigates methods for solving
optical occulation measurements made by satellite, emphasizing stellar
occulation for monitoring important trace gases. Constructs global distributions
of several trace gases.
Total Ozone Data from Nimbus 7 TOMS, the Brewer UV Spectrophotometer, and SAOZ
UV-Visible Spectrophotometer at High Latitudes Observatory, Sodankylä,"
E. Kyrö (Finnish Meteor. Inst., Sodankylä Observ., SF-99600, Sodankylä,
Finland), Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(7), 571-574, Apr. 9, 1993.
"A Study of the
Gas-Phase Reaction of Carbonyl Fluoride with Water," J.S. Francisco (Dept.
Chem., Wayne State Univ., Detroit MI 48202), J. Atmos. Chem., 16(3),
285-292, Apr. 1993. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations determine
the mechanism and energetics of the homogeneous, hydrolytic reaction.
"Role of Sulphur
Photochemistry in Tropical Ozone Changes after the Eruption of Mount Pinatubo,"
S. Bekki (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW,
UK), R. Tuomi, J.A. Pyle, Nature, 362(6418), 331-333, Mar. 25,
1993. Model calculations demonstrate that gas-phase sulfur chemistry may have
played a part in the tropical ozone perturbations that followed the eruption.
Winter/Spring Denitrification of the Stratosphere in the Nitrate of Antarctic
Firn Cores," R. Mulvaney (Brit. Antarctic Surv., High Cross, Madingley Rd.,
Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), E.W. Wolff, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D3),
5213-5220, Mar. 20, 1993.
Nitrate peaks that occurred consistently in spring or early summer over that
last three decades may be evidence of sedimentation of polar stratospheric
clouds, suggesting the possibility of observing past stratospheric conditions
over longer time scales from ice cores.
Four items from Geophys.
Res. Lett., 20(5), Mar. 5, 1993:
"Chlorine Catalyzed Destruction of Ozone: Implications for Ozone
Variability in the Upper Stratosphere," S. Chandra (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt
MD 20771), C.H. Jackman et al., 351-354. Differences between observed and 2-D
model-calculated values of ozone are improved by changing the partitioning in
the Cly family to create a larger reservoir of HCl and reducing ClO.
"Effect of Competitive Adsorption on Polar Stratospheric Cloud
Reactions," M. Mozurkewich (Dept. Chem., York Univ., N. York ON M3J 1P3,
Can.), 355-358. Laboratory data for reaction rates on ice and nitric acid
trihydrate are interpreted in terms of a simple mechanism which assumes that the
solid phase is either pure H2O or pure HNO3(H2O)3, and that the state of the
surface depends largely on the gas phase composition.
"Laboratory Simulations of PSC Particle Formation," J. Marti
(School Phys. Astron., Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455), K. Mauersberger,
359-362. Experiments at conditions that approximate those of the stratosphere
more closely than in prior studies may help explain recent PSC observations in
terms of very young clouds which have not reached equilibrium.
"A Survey and New Measurements of Ice Vapor Pressure at Temperatures
between 170 and 250K," J. Marti (address above), K. Mauersberger, 363-366.
Extends the range of measured ice vapor pressures by three orders of magnitude,
and derives an empirical vapor pressure equation.
"Greenhouse Gases in
the Stratosphere," W. Zhong (Blackett Lab., Imperial College Sci. Technol.
Med., London SW7 2BZ, UK), J.D. Haigh, J.A. Pyle, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D2),
2995-3004, Feb. 20, 1993.
Simulations with a radiative-photochemical-dynamical 2-D model explore the
effect on stratospheric temperatures, and consequent impacts on ozone, of the
radiative forcings of changing concentrations of ozone, methane, nitrous oxide,
and CFCs 11 and 12, for up to 50 model years.
Six items from J.
Geophys. Res., 20(2), Feb. 20, 1993:
"A Simulation of the Cerro Hudson SO2 Cloud," M.R. Schoeberl
(NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), S.D. Doiron et al., 2949-2955. An
isentropic trajectory model shows that the principal stratospheric injection
region to be between 11 and 16 km in altitude, and suggests that the lower
stratospheric polar and mid-latitude regions are nearly isolated from each other
during late August.
"Uptake of Formaldehyde by Sulfuric Acid Solutions: Impact on
Stratospheric Ozone," M.A. Tolbert (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO
80309), J. Pfaff et al., 2957-2962. Laboratory experiments suggest that the
removal of CH2O from the gas phase can take away a significant source of odd H
in the mid- and high-latitude lower stratosphere.
"Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrum of HOCl," J.B. Burkholder (Aeron.
Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), 2963-2974.
"Error Analysis of ClO, O3 and H2O Abundance Profiles Retrieved from
Millimeter Wave Limb Sounding Measurements," C.P. Aellig (Inst. Angewandte
Phys., Univ. Bern, CH-3012, Bern, Switz.), N. Kämpfer, R.M. Bevilacqua,
"Estimation of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Albedo Using Ground-Based
Umkehr Measurements," J.J. DeLuisi (ERL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO
80303), D.U. Longenecker et al., 2895-2993. The estimation method developed may
be useful for determining the drift rate of the SBUV calibration.
"Relationship between Total Ozone Amounts and Stratospheric Temperature
at Syowa, Antarctica," S. Chubachi (Meteor. Res. Inst., 1-1 Nagamine,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), 3005-3010. Statistical relationships were studied
based on data obtained during 1961-1981, and during 1982-1988, the time of ozone
depletion in Antarctica.
"A Model Study of
ATMOS Observations and the Heterogeneous Loss of N2O5 by the
Sulphate Aerosol Layer," R. Toumi (Dept. Chem., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield
Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), S. Bekki, R. Cox, J. Atmos. Chem., 16(2),
135-144, Feb. 1993.
CH4 and N2O Profiles from IR Solar Occultation Spectra,"
C. Camy-Peyret (Lab. Phys. Moléculaire, CNRS Univ. P. & M. Curie,
Paris, France), J.-M. Flaud et al., ibid., 16(1), 31-40, 1993.
"Simulation of the
Effect of Carbon Dioxide Doubling on Stratospheric Ozone," J.F. Mahfouf
(UDC, GMGEC, Ctr. Nat. Rech. Meteor., 42 Ave. G. Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse,
France), D. Cariolle, J.F. Royer, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Ser. II., Mech.
Phys. Chim. Sci. de la Terre & Univers.,
316(1), 61-68, Jan. 7, 1993. In French.
Two 5-year GCM simulations show cooling increasing with height in the
stratosphere, and an increase of ozone due to modified photochemical reaction
rates. Results confirm those with 2-D models and emphasize the importance of
Special Section: "Ozone,"
Current Sci., 63(12), Dec. 25, 1992:
"Seventy Years of Ozone Research," H.U. Dütsch (Swiss Fed.
Inst. Technol., CH-8092, Zurich, Switz.), 701-711. A historical review through
"Laboratory Studies of the Photochemistry of Ozone," R.P. Wayne,
711-722. Concentrates on photodissociation.
"Ozone Observations and Research in New Zealand-A Historical
Perspective," E. Farkas (80 Ranui Cresc., Wellington 4, N.Z.), 722-727.
Discusses measurements in New Zealand and Antarctica starting from 1929, and
evidence of a decreasing trend in total ozone from 1975 to 1990.
"An Infrared Study
of the UV Photolysis of Chlorine Nitrate Trapped in Various Matrices at 11K,"
A. DeSaxce (Phys. Molec. & Applic. Lab., Univ. Paris 06, UPR 136, Tour 13,
Batiment 76, F-75252 Paris, France), L. Schriver, Chem. Phys. Lett.,
199(6), 596-604, Nov. 20, 1992.
Chemistry of HBr and HF," D.R. Hanson (NOAA Aeronomy Lab., 325 Broadway,
Boulder CO 80303), A.R. Ravishankara, J. Chem. Phys., 96(23),
9411-9446, Nov. 12, 1992. Experiments on glass and ice surfaces suggest that HBr
would be processed efficiently on ice particles.
J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans., 48(5-6), Nov.-Dec. 1992
(Pergamon Press), contains papers from a June 1991 conference on molecular
spectroscopic databases, several of which relate to stratospheric ozone
chemistry. An overview paper, "The HITRAN Molecular Database: Editions of
1991 and 1992," L.S. Rothman (Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFB, Lexington MA
01731), et al., pp. 469-507, describes modifications to the HITRAN atmospheric
"Effect of Space
Rocket Launches on Ozone," I.L. Karol (Main Geophys. Observ., 7 Karbyshev
St., St. Petersburg 194018, Russia), Y.E. Ozolin, E.V. Rosanov, Annales
Geophysicae-Atmos., Hydros. & Space Sci., 10(10), 810-814, Oct.
A system of atmospheric gas composition models is used to assess the effects
of the U.S. Space Shuttle and Soviet Energy rocket. Concentrations near the
exhaust axes may be reduced 10-100% for periods up to four hours, but annually
and globally averaged depletion due to an assumed 50 launches per year is less
Stratospheric Circulation by Changing Amounts of Tropical Ozone: A Pinatubo Case
Study," S. Kinne (NASA-Ames, Moffett Field CA 94035), O.B. Toon, M.J.
Prather, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(19), 1927-1930, Oct. 2, 1992.
Evaluates various processes by which Pinatubo aerosols affected lower
stratospheric ozone, based primarily on radiation calculations. Resulting upward
vertical motion lowered ozone amounts by effectively raising the ozone profile
about 2 km, demonstrating the important role of ozone in buffering vertical
motion in the tropical lower stratosphere.
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Index of Abbreviations