February 28, 2007
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FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1993
CLIMATIC IMPACT OF STRATOSPHERIC AEROSOLS
Forcing by the Mount Pinatubo Eruption," P. Minnis (NASA-Langley, Hampton
VA 23681), E.F. Harrison et al., Science,
259(5100), 1411-1415, Mar. 5, 1993.
Radiative flux anomalies derived from the spaceborne Earth Radiation Budget
Experiment provide the first unambiguous, direct measurements of large-scale
volcanic forcing. Aerosols from the June 1991 Pinatubo eruption caused a strong
cooling effect immediately, through both direct and indirect increases in
Stratospheric Warming Following Agung, El Chichón and Pinatubo Volcanic
Eruptions," J.K. Angell (ARL, NOAA, 1325 E.-W. Hwy., Silver Spring MD
20910), Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(8), 715-718, Apr. 23, 1993.
Data from a 63-station network shows that the warming following Agung and El
Chichón was greatest in the equatorial zone and least at the poles, with
greater warming south of the equator. Globally, the warming in the lower
stratosphere following Pinatubo was greater than for the other two eruptions.
Properties of Mount Pinatubo Volcanic Aerosols over the Tropical Atlantic,"
R. Saunders (UKMO, Farnborough, Hants GU14 6TD, UK), Geophys. Res. Lett.,
20(2), 137-140, Jan. 22, 1993.
Model calculations based on aircraft measurements made five months after the
eruption predict a decrease in tropospheric heating rate of less than 0.2·C
"Winter Warming from
Large Volcanic Eruptions," A. Robock (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Maryland,
College Pk. MD 20742), J. Mao, ibid.,
19(24), 2405-2408, Dec. 24, 1992.
Examination of temperatures following the 12 largest eruptions in the period
1883-1992 shows a pattern of warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling
over the Middle East, independent of the hemisphere of the eruptions.
Forcing at Selected Locations and Evidence for Global Lower Tropospheric Cooling
Following the Eruptions of El Chichón and Pinatubo," E.G. Dutton
(NOAA CMDL, Code R/E/CG1, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.R. Christy, ibid.,
19(23), 2313-2316, Dec. 2, 1992.
Satellite microwave sounding data show global lower tropospheric
temperatures decreased 0.5·C three months after the eruption of Pinatubo.
Relationships among the Earth's Radiation Budget, Cloudiness, Volcanic Aerosols,
and Surface Temperature," P.E. Ardanuy (Res. & Data Sys. Corp., S. 460,
7855 Walker Dr., Greenbelt MD 20770), H.L. Kyle, D. Hoyt, J. Clim., 5(10),
1120-1139, Oct. 1992.
Assesses interannual variability of and correlations among: Nimbus-7
THIR/TOMS cloud amount; ERB WFOV longwave, shortwave, and net radiation; SAM II
aerosol optical depths; and surface temperature analyses.
Two items from Geophys.
Res. Lett., 19(15), Aug. 3, 1992:
"Possible Regional Climate Consequences of the Pinatubo Eruption: An
Empirical Approach," P.Ya. Groisman (NCDC-NOAA, Fed. Bldg., Asheville NC
28801), 1603-1606. The unusually warm winter of 1991-92 in Eastern Europe
coincides with the pattern exhibited following the greatest eruptions of the
last two centuries. The pattern favors cool summers in Eastern Europe and the
northeastern U.S. in the next two or three years.
"Climate Forcing by Stratospheric Aerosols," A. Lacis (NASA
Goddard Inst. Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), J. Hansen, M.
Sato, 1607-1610. Illustrates how the forcing depends on aerosol properties and
can be defined accurately from measurements of aerosol extinction over a broad
Liquid-Phase Cirrus Cloud Formation from Volcanic Aerosols: Climatic
Implications," K. Sassen (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City UT
84112), Science, 257(5069), 516-519, July 24, 1992.
Lidar measurements indicate the presence of rare supercooled water droplets
in cirrus clouds, apparently resulting from freezing-point depression of cloud
condensation nuclei of volcanic origin. An unrecognized volcano-cirrus cloud
climate feedback mechanism is implied.
Aerosols vs. Global Greenhouse Warming of the Lower Stratosphere," I.L.
Karol (Main Geophys. Observ., Moscow, Russia), V.A. Frolkis, Izvestiya
Akademii Nauk SSSR Fizika Atmosfery i Okeana,
28(5), 467-474, May 1992. In Russian.
Calculations with a radiative-convective model show that compensation of the
greenhouse warming exhibited by surface layer air during the last decades would
require the annual input of several megatons of sulfate aerosols and hundreds of
kilotons of soot.
Anthropogenic Variations of Climate Caused by Joint Influence of Carbonic Acid
and Carbonyl Sulfide Combustion Effects," A.S. Kabanov (Exper. Meteor. Res.
Inst., Obninsk, USSR), ibid., 28(3), 227-233, Mar. 1992. In
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