February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1993
GLOBAL AND REGIONAL MODELING
Two items from J.
Geophys. Res., 98(D4) Apr. 20, 1993:
"How Well Can Regional Fluxes Be Derived from Smaller-Scale Estimates?"
K.E. Moore (Atmos. Sci. Res. Ctr., State Univ. of New York, Albany NY 12205),
D.R. Fitzjarrald, J.A. Ritter, 7187-7198. In this field study, simultaneous
aircraft and tower data obtained in relatively simple tundra terrain were used
to determine the extent to which surface type variation can be related to
regional-scale fluxes of heat, moisture and other properties.
"Tropical Deforestation: Modeling Local- to Regional-Scale Climate
Change," A. Henderson-Sellers (Clim. Impacts Ctr., Macquarie Univ., North
Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia), R.E. Dickinson et al., 7289-7315. Tropical moist
forest throughout the Amazon River and southeast Asia were replaced by scrub
grassland in a version of the NCAR climate model.
Parameterization of the Radiative Properties of Water Clouds Suitable for Use in
Climate Models," Y.X. Hu, K. Stamnes (Geophys. Inst., Univ. Alaska,
Fairbanks AK 99775), J. Clim., 6(4), 728-742, Apr. 1993. The
parameterization separates the dependence of cloud optical properties on droplet
size and on liquid water content, and produces accurate results several thousand
times faster than exact Mie scattering calculations.
Two survey articles from
Physics Today, 46(3), Mar. 1993:
"Special issue: High-Performance Computing and Physics," S.A.
Orszag, N.J. Zabusky, 22-23. Concurrent computation and high-speed communication
offer opportunities for simulations of more realistic physics.
"Modeling Oceanic and Atmospheric Vortices," D. Dritschel (St.
Catherine's Coll., Cambridge, UK), B. Legras, 44-51. The ozone hole is one of
various problems in planetary fluid dynamics that challenge our most powerful
Two items from J.
Clim., 6(3), Mar. 1993:
"Carbon Dioxide and Climate: The Impact of Cloud Parameterization,"
C.A. Senior (Hadley Ctr. Clim. Pred., London Rd., Bracknell RG12 2SY, UK),
J.F.B. Mitchell, 393-418. Four different cloud parameterization schemes were
compared in the Hadley Centre model, and sensitivity to a doubling of CO2
"Sensitivity of Climate Simulations to Land-Surface and Atmospheric
Boundary-Layer Treatments: A Review," J.R. Garratt (CSIRO, Div. Atmos.
Res., Priv. Bag 1, Mordialloc 3195, Australia). This extensive review concludes
with needs for the development and validation of atmospheric boundary layer and
surface schemes in GCMs.
Models Sensitive to Initial Conditions?"
Eos, pp. 132, 134, Mar. 23, 1993. Comment on previous discussion of the
sensitivity of climate models to initial conditions.
Three items from J.
Geophys. Res., 98(D3), Mar. 20, 1993:
"New Parameterizations and Sensitivities for Simple Climate Models,"
C.E. Graves (Dept. Atmos. Sci., St. Louis Univ., St. Louis, Mo.), W.-H. Lee,
G.R. North, 5025-5036. Reexamines radiation budget parameterizations of energy
balance climate models in light of data collected over the last 12 years.
"Incorporating Landscape Heterogeneity in Land Surface Albedo Models,"
C.M. Rowe (Dept. Geog., Univ. Nebraska, Lincoln NE 68588), 5037-5043.
Demonstrates that substantial errors in the representation of
vegetation-atmosphere interactions can arise from the assumption of landscape
"Interactive Coupling of a Lake Thermal Model with a Regional Climate
Model," S.W. Hostetler (U.S. Geolog. Surv., 3215 Marine St., Boulder CO
80307), G.T. Bates, F. Giorgi, 5045-5057. The combination of a 1-D lake model
with the NCAR/Penn State regional model produces realistic simulations and is
suitable for evaluating regional climate change.
Responses and Feedbacks to Climate: A Review of Models and Processes," P.
Martin (Joint Res. Ctr., TP 440, Commission of the European Communities,
I-21020 Ispra, Italy), Climate Dynamics,
8(4), 201-210, Mar. 1993.
Concludes that the ratio of climate and vegetation space scales should be
about five orders of magnitude less than the ratio of climate and vegetation
Three items from J.
Clim., 6(2), Feb. 1993:
"A Factorial Assessment of the Sensitivity of the BATS Land-Surface
Parameterization Scheme," A. Henderson-Sellers (Sch. Earth Sci., Macquarie
Univ., North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia), 227-247. Compared to simple
one-at-a-time changes, factorial experiments such as the ones described here are
more powerful for evaluating interactions between parameters, and could serve as
the basis for intercomparison of parameterization schemes and for field
experiments and satellite-based observation programs.
"SECHIBA, a New Set of Parameterizations of the Hydrologic Exchanges at
the Land-Atmosphere Interface within the LMD Atmospheric General Circulation
Model," N.I. Ducourdré (Lab. Modélisation du Climat, Orme des
Merisiers Bát-709, C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France), K.
Laval, A. Perrier, 248-273. The new scheme, which is simple and requires
prescription of a restricted number of parameters, is comparable to the
Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme and other techniques.
"The Impact of Clouds on the Shortwave Radiation Budget of the
Surface-Atmosphere System: Interfacing Measurements and Models," R.D. Cess
(Inst. Terr. Plan. Atmos., State Univ. New York, Stony Brook NY 11794), S.
Nemesure et al., 308-316. Combines two datasets to demonstrate how the
availability of more comprehensive datasets could elucidate the shortwave
radiative impact of clouds on both the atmospheric column and the surface.
Tracers: An Investigation Using an Atmospheric General Circulation Model Under
Ice Age Conditions," J. Geophys. Res.,
98(D2), Feb. 20, 1993. "1. Desert Dust," S. Joussaume (Lab. de
Modélization du Clim. & Environ., Comm. l'Energie Atomique,
Gif-sur-Yvette, France), 2767-2805; "2. Water Isotopes," S. Joussaume,
J. Jouzel, 2807-2830.
In a new approach, these studies use a model to investigate the link between
tracer cycles (dust deposits and water isotopes in ice core layers) and climate.
Examines whether the tracers are global or local features, and consistency of
the model simulations.
"Greenhouse Gases in
the Stratosphere," W. Zhong (Blackett Lab., Imperial Coll. Sci., Tech. &
Med., London SW7 2BZ, UK), J.D. Haigh, J.A. Pyle, ibid., 2995-3004.
Simulations with a radiative-photochemical-dynamical 2-D model show that the
radiative forcings of changing concentrations of ozone, methane, nitrous oxide
and CFCs 11 and 12 lead to significant heating rates in the lower stratosphere.
with the Thermohaline Circulation," J. Yang (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ.
Calif., Los Angeles CA 90024), J.D. Neelin,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(2), 217-220, Feb. 5, 1993.
Simulations with a zonally-averaged thermohaline circulation model suggest a
plausible mechanism for observed interdecadal variability between sea ice and
salinity in the North Atlantic.
Three items from J.
Clim., 6(1), Jan. 1993:
"Climate Variability in a Coupled GCM. Part 1: The Tropical Pacific,"
M. Latif (M. Planck Inst. Meteor., D-2000 Hamburg 13, Ger.), A. Sterl et al.,
5-21. A 26-year integration with the coupled model exhibits an irregular ENSO
with a preferred time scale of about three years. Additional experiments with a
simplified coupled model show that even modest changes in the background
conditions can push the coupled system from one flow regime to another.
"Tropical Pacific Interannual Variability and CO2 Climate Change,"
G.A. Meehl (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), G.W. Branstator, W.M. Washington,
42-63. Estimates the sensitivity of ENSO-related effects in a doubled CO2
climate, using two different interactive ocean-atmosphere model configurations.
Comments and reply on "Two Stable Equilibria of a Coupled
Ocean-Atmosphere Model," 175-179.
"Simulation of the
Effect of Carbon Dioxide Doubling on Stratospheric Ozone," J.F. Mahfouf
(Ctr. Natl. Res. Meteor., F-31057 Toulouse, France), D. Cariolle, J.F. Royer,
Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sci. Ser. II, 316(1), 61-68,
Jan. 7, 1993. In French.
Five-year climate simulations with a doubled level of CO2 show a cooling
increasing with height in the stratosphere, and an increase of ozone due to
modified photochemical reaction rates. Results confirm those with 2-D models and
emphasize the importance of heterogeneous processes.
Three items from Climate
Dynamics, 8(3), Jan. 1993:
"Century-Scale Variability in a Randomly Forced, 2-Dimensional
Thermohaline Ocean Circulation Model," L.A. Mysak (Dept. Atmos. Sci.,
McGill Univ., Montreal PQ H3A 2K6, Can.), T.F. Stocker, F. Huang, 103-116. Shows
that for a wide range of vertical and horizontal diffusivities and a box
geometry that approximates the Atlantic Ocean, 200-300 year oscillations exist
in the basic-state, meridional overturning circulation.
"Low-Frequency Variability and CO2 Transient Climate Change. 1.
Time-Averaged Differences," G.A. Meehl (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307),
W.M. Washington, T.R. Karl, 117-133. Results from a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM
underscore the difficulty of identifying a "fingerprint" of greenhouse
warming from short-term records, and point to the need to understand the
mechanisms of decade-scale variability.
"The Dynamics of Uncertainty: Application to Parameterization Constants
in Climate Models," R.J. Fleming (address immed. above), 135-150. Using a
series of dynamical systems of increasing complexity, investigates a range of
uncertainties related to the parameterization constants for various forcing
terms, and outlines a framework for dealing with the problem in complex GCMs.
Six items from J.
Geophys. Res., 97(D18), Dec. 20, 1992:
"Comparison of General Circulation Models to Earth Radiation Budget
Experiment Data: Computation of Clear-Sky Fluxes," R.D. Cess (Inst. Terr.
Plan. Atmos., State Univ. New York, Stony Brook NY 11974), G.L. Potter et al.,
20,421-20,426. Provides a clear-sky computation method that solves the problem
of computing a model diagnostic consistent with processed satellite data.
"The Effects of Sampling Frequency on the Climate Statistics of the
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts," T.J. Phillips
(Lawrence-Livermore Nat. Lab., POB 808, Livermore CA 94550), W.L. Gates, K.
"Seasonal Cycle and Second-Moment Statistics of a Simple Coupled
Climate System," K.-Y. Kim (Appl. Res. Corp., College Sta., Texas), G.R.
North, 20,437-20,448. Examines a 2-D energy balance model with a deep ocean.
"An Analysis of the Relationships Between Cloud Anomalies and Sea
Surface Temperature Anomalies in a Global Circulation Model," T.C. Peterson
(NCDC, Fed. Bldg., Asheville NC 28801), T.P. Barnett et al., 20,497-20,506.
Statistically Relates cloud cover and radiation characteristics to sea surface
temperature anomalies, for both observed data and output from the Hamburg GCM.
"A Modeling Perspective on Cloud Radiative Forcing," G.L. Potter
(Lawrence-Livermore Nat. Lab., POB 808, Livermore CA 94550), J.M. Slingo et al.,
20,507-20,518. Radiation fields from a perpetual July integration of the ECMWF
operational model were used to identify the most appropriate way to diagnose
cloud radiative forcing for the purpose of comparing GCMs.
"Three-Dimensional Simulations of Atmospheric Methyl Chloroform: Effect
of an Ocean Sink," X. Tie (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), C.-Y. Kao et
al., 20,751-20,769. Model simulations of the distribution and seasonal cycle of
the surface concentration of methyl chloroform are compared with data from the
Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment for 1980-1985. Effects of the recently
discovered ocean sink on these features and on OH distributions are
Sensitivity of a Land-Surface Scheme to Parameters Used in
Tropical-Deforestation Experiments," A. Henderson-Sellers (Sch. Earth Sci.,
Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia), Quart. J. Royal Meteor.
Soc., 118(508), 1101-1116, Oct. 1992.
Factorial experiments show difficulties in the use of the
Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, particularly in representations of future
Runoff Calculated from a Global Atmospheric Model," S.C. Kuhl (Dept.
Meteor., State Univ. New Jersey, New Brunswick NJ 08903), J.R. Miller, Water
Resources Res., 28(8), 2029-2039, Aug. 1992.
Examines the success of the NASA-GISS GCM in simulating seasonal and other
characteristics of river runoff, as a means of diagnosing model performance
under present or future climate conditions.
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