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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d93mar95

"On the Stationarity of the Ozone Layer in Norway and U.S.S.R.," K. Henriksen (Auroral Observ., Univ. Tromsf, Norway), E.I. Terez et al., J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 55(2), 145-154, Feb. 1993.

Long-term column ozone density measurements made in Norway and the former USSR show no decreasing trend during the last two decades.

Item #d93mar96

"Satellite Ozone Monitoring Error," Nature, 361(6412), 505, Feb. 11, 1993. Letter on a slight error in the Nimbus-7 TOMS measurements.

Item #d93mar97

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(3), Feb. 5, 1993:

"Laboratory Measurements of the Loss of ClO on Pyrex, Ice and NAT at 183K," R.D. Kenner (CSIRO Div. Appl. Phys., Lindfield, Australia 2070), 193-196. Rates of loss of ClO from the gas phase on these surfaces are small, making it probable that heterogeneous reactions involving these components are unimportant in the winter stratosphere.

"Radiative Forcing Due to Ozone in the 1980s: Dependence on Altitude of Ozone Change," M.D. Schwarzkopf (GFDL, Princeton Univ., POB 308, Princeton NJ 08542), V. Ramaswamy, 205-208. Describes calculations using the GFDL radiative transfer model, including the competing cooling from ozone depletion and warming by increased tropospheric ozone.

Item #d93mar98

Three items from J. Geophys. Res., 98(D1), Jan. 20, 1993:

"Visible and Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 8. Observations of Nighttime NO2 and NO3 from April to October 1991," S. Solomon (Aeronomy Lab., 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.P. Smith et al., 993-1000. Vertical column abundances of NO2 and NO3 determined through lunar absorption spectra were broadly consistent with model predictions and daytime measurements. The concept of an extended polar night as often applied in modeling studies appears inconsistent with these observations.

"Polar Stratospheric Clouds at the South Pole in 1990: Lidar Observations and Analysis," R.L. Collins (Dept. Elec. Eng., Univ. Illinois, Urbana IL 61801), K.P. Bowman, C.S. Gardner, 1001-1010. Presents observations from Dec. 1989 through Oct. 1990. Evidence was found of upward-propagating gravity waves, which apparently maintain the kilometer-scale vertical structure of the clouds.

"A Global Analysis of the Ozone Deficit in the Upper Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere," J. Eluszkiewicz (Dept. Geolog. Sci., Calif. Inst. Tech., Pasadena CA 91125), M. Allen, 1069-1082. Global measurements from the Limb Infrared Monitor are combined with calculations with an efficient photochemical equilibrium model to test the balance between odd oxygen production and loss. Computed ozone abundances are systematically lower than observations in the test case, which suggests, contrary to the conclusions of other recent studies, a real problem in model simulations of stratospheric ozone.

Item #d93mar99

Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(1), Jan. 8, 1993:

"Tropical Ozone Loss Following the Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," M.R. Schoeberl (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), P.K. Bhartia et al., 29-32. TOMS measurements of equatorial total ozone following the eruption show a decrease of up to 6% which begins about a month later, consistent with the time required for the SO2 to convert to sulfuric acid aerosol.

"Changes in Stratospheric Ozone and Temperature Due to the Eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo," S. Chandra (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), 33-36. Changes in total column ozone deduced from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and the NOAA-11 SBUV/2 spectrometers were 3-9% at various latitudes, but only 2-4% after removing the effects of quasi-biennial oscillations and interannual variability.

"Empirical Linkages between Arctic Sea Ice Extents and Northern Hemisphere Mid-Latitude Column Ozone Levels," J.R. Marko (Arctic Sci. Ltd.), D.B. Fissel, 37-40. The observed correlations are discussed in terms of underlying mechanisms, recent decreasing hemispheric ozone levels, and the pattern of stratospheric-solar flux correlations that Labitzke and van Loon (1992) have proposed could affect estimates of ozone trends.

Item #d93mar100

"Evidence for Heterogeneous Reactions in the Antarctic Autumn Stratosphere," J.G. Keys (Nat. Inst. Atmos. Res., Lauder, Central Otago, N. Zealand), P.V. Johnston et al., Nature, 361(6407), 49-51, Jan. 7, 1993.

Measurements of Antarctic stratospheric NO2 and HNO3 demonstrate that heterogeneous chemistry contributing to ozone loss occurred on background aerosols in autumn, before temperatures were low enough for polar stratospheric clouds to form.

Item #d93mar101

Three items from Adv. Space Res., 13(1), Jan. 1993:

"Background Stratospheric Aerosol and Polar Stratospheric Cloud Reference Models," M.P. McCormick (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), P.H. Wang, M.C. Pitts, 7-29. Presents updated reference models based on NASA satellite data, and discusses the impacts of various volcanic eruptions.

"Revised Reference Model for Nitric Acid," J.C. Gille (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), P.L. Bailey, C.A. Craig, 59-72.

"Some Aspects of the Interaction between Chemical and Dynamic Processes Relating to the Antarctic Ozone Hole" R.S. Eckman (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), R.E. Turner et al., 311-319. Investigates chemical-dynamical interactions through analysis of observations and use of a 3-D chemical-transport model.

Item #d93mar102

"Vapor Pressures of Solid Hydrates of Nitric Acid: Implications for Polar Stratospheric Clouds," D.R. Worsnop (Aerodyne Res. Inc., Billerica MA 01821), Science, 259(5091), 71-74, Jan. 1, 1993.

Item #d93mar103

"Surface Areas and Porosities of Ices Used to Simulate Stratospheric Clouds," L.F. Keyser (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), M.T. Leu, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 155(1), 137-145, Jan. 1993.

Item #d93mar104

"Formation of Model Polar Stratospheric Cloud Films," A.M. Middlebrook (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), B.G. Koehler et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 12(24), 2417-2420, Dec. 24, 1992. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to examine the competitive growth of films representative of polar stratospheric clouds.

Item #d93mar105

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D18), Dec. 20, 1992:

"Measurements and Model Calculations of HCl Column Amounts and Related Parameters over McMurdo during the Austral Spring in 1989," X. Liu (Phys. Dept., Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208), R.D. Blatherwick et al., 20,795-20,804. Model results show that the rate of recovery of HCl to active chlorine in springtime is consistent with its production by chlorine atoms reacting with methane, and is dependent on the concentrations of active chlorine species and NO molecules in the 12 to 22 km region.

"Diagnostic Model Study of the Seasonal Variations of Global Ozone and the Antarctic Ozone Hole," H. Akiyoshi (Dept. Appl. Phys., Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka 814-01, Japan), M. Uryu, 20,837-20,853. A simple 2-D model, which includes the Hartmann parameterization of the Chapman cycle and three components of the meridional circulation, simulates the main features of the global and seasonal distributions of ozone. Discusses the possibility of a weak October minimum in Antarctic total ozone without introducing chlorine chemistry.

Item #d93mar106

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(23), Dec. 2, 1992:

"Role of the BRO + HO2 Reaction in the Stratospheric Chemistry of Bromine," G. Poulet (CNRS, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2, France), M. Pirre et al., 2305-2308. The impact of new laboratory data for the reaction is estimated using a 1-D photochemical model.

"Components of Interannual Ozone Change Based on Nimbus 7 TOMS Data," L.L. Hood (Lunar & Planet. Lab., Univ. Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721), J.P. McCormack, 2309-2312. Uses a statistical regression model to estimate the dependence of total ozone on the solar cycle and quasi-biennial oscillation and to isolate the anthropogenic trend component, in 13 years of data. The linear trend results agree with earlier studies; a return to more rapid depletion is predicted during the next four years as the solar minimum is approached.

Item #d93mar107

"Eighth Conference on the Middle Atmosphere," R.R. Garcia (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73(12), 2025-2033, Dec. 1992. Review of the Jan. 1992 meeting, with sessions on ozone depletion and stratospheric aerosols.

Item #d93mar108

"Impact of Heterogeneous Chemistry on Model Predictions of Ozone Changes," C. Granier (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), G. Brasseur, J. Geophys. Res., 97(D16), 18,015-18,033, Nov. 20, 1992.

Reports extensive calculations with a 2-D chemical-transport model of the middle atmosphere. When reactions on polar stratospheric clouds are considered, enhanced ClO leads to formation of a springtime ozone hole over Antarctica, but not in the Arctic. When conversion of N and Cl compounds is assumed on lower stratospheric sulfate particles present at all latitudes, significant perturbations are also found. Volcanic aerosol effects are discussed.

Item #d93mar109

"The Effect of Stratospheric Water Vapor on the Heterogeneous Reaction Rate of ClONO2 and H2O for Sulfuric Acid Aerosol," D.J. Hofmann (NOAA Clim. Monit. Lab., 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), S.J. Oltmans, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(22), 2211-2214, Nov. 20, 1992.

Item #d93mar110

"Direct Observation of ClO from Chlorine Nitrate Photolysis," T.K. Minton (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), C.M. Nelson et al., Science, 258(5086), 1342-1345, Nov. 20, 1992. Molecular beam experiments provide a direct measurement of the ClO product channel, and raise the possibility of an analogous channel in ClO dimer photolysis.

Item #d93mar111

"Observations of a New SAGE II Aerosol Extinction Mode following the Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," L.W. Thomason (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(21), 2179-2182, Nov. 3, 1992.

A previously unobserved, apparently transition mode with high extinction but small inferred particle size may have a significant impact on chemical and radiative processes in the stratosphere.

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