February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 5, MAY 1993
SULFUR, CLOUDS AND CLIMATE
items from J. Geophys. Res., 98(D2), Feb. 20, 1993:
"Sulfate Aerosol Distributions and Cloud Variations
During El Niņo Anomalies," F. Parungo (ARL, NOAA, 325
Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), B. Hicks, 2667-2675. The effects of
aerosols on cloud characteristics, albedo, rainfall amount and
overall climate changes were investigated using historical
records and data from recent field measurements. ENSO
perturbations change sulfate aerosol production and distribution
over the regions; cloud dynamics rather than sulfate aerosols
play the pivotal role in control of cloud types and amount.
"Cloud Condensation Nuclei Near Marine Cumulus,"
J.G. Hudson (Desert Res. Inst., Univ. Nevada, Reno NV 89512),
2693-2702. Airborne measurements of cloud condensation nucleus
spectra and condensation nuclei in and around cumulus clouds near
Hawaii point to important aerosol-cloud interactions.
"Optical Properties of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds
Modified by Ships," M.D. King (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD
20771), L.F. Radke, P.V. Hobbs, 2729-2739. Airborne measurements
of the angular distribution of scattered radiation deep within a
cloud layer show that total optical thickness increased in the
"Climatic Change in Britain. Is SO2 More Significant Than CO2?"
R.C. Balling Jr. (Off. Clim., Arizona State Univ., Tempe AZ
85287), S.B. Idso, Theor. Appl. Clim., 45(4),
Analysis of climatic data over the period 1929-1988 suggests
that SO2 rather than CO2 has been the major
anthropogenic climate influence in Britain over the past four
from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D18), Dec. 20, 1992:
"Aqueous-Phase Chemical Processes in Deliquescent
Sea-Salt Aerosols: A Mechanism That Couples the Atmospheric
Cycles of S and Sea Salt," W.L. Chameides (Sch. Geophys.
Sci., Georgia Inst. Technol., Atlanta GA 30332), A.W. Stelson,
20,565-20,580. Investigations using a steady-state box model
suggest that sea salt may remove a significant amount of S from
the marine atmosphere, thereby depressing boundary layer SO2
concentration and limiting the number of cloud condensation
nuclei generated by oxidation of SO2.
"New Particle Formation in the Marine Boundary
Layer," D.S. Covert (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington,
AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), V.N. Kapustin et al., 20,581-20,589.
Aerosol measurements along the coast of Washington State provide
evidence that, at times, high concentrations of new ultrafine
particles are formed at low SO2 concentrations under marine
conditions by homogeneous nucleation.
"Removal of Sulphur from the Marine Boundary Layer by Ozone
Oxidation in Sea-Salt Aerosols," H. Sievering (NOAA, 325
Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J. Boatman et al., Nature, 360(6404),
571-573, Dec. 10, 1992.
Results of field observations and modeling demonstrate that
oxidation of SO2 to sulfate by ozone, generally considered
important only in cloud droplets, is also an important removal
pathway for sulfur in the marine boundary layer, and may greatly
reduce the proposed greenhouse warming feedback involving oceanic
DMS emissions and sulfate haze albedo.
Model Study of the Formation of Cloud Condensation Nuclei in
Remote Marine Areas," X. Lin (Sch. Geophys. Sci., Georgia
Inst. Technol., Atlanta GA 30332), W.L. Chameides et al., J.
Geophys. Res., 97(D16), 18,161-18,171, Nov. 20, 1992.
Theoretical modeling suggests that the coupling between DMS
emissions and CCN production in the marine boundary layer can
only exist when the existing CCN concentrations fall below a
"Sulfur: The Plankton/Climate Connection," G. Malin
(Sch. Environ. Sci., Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), S.M.
Turner, P.S. Liss, J. Phycol., 28(5), 590-597, Oct.
A review considering DMS formation in seawater, emission to
the atmosphere, atmospheric transformations, the role of DMS
oxidation products in climate regulation, and how global changes
might affect DMS production.
Indicating Oxidant Scrubber for the Measurement of Atmospheric
Dimethylsulphide," P. Kittler (Govt. Analyt.
Labs.--Tasmanian Region, POB 84, Kingston, Tasmania 7150,
Australia), H. Swan, J. Ivey, Atmos. Environ., 26A(14),
2661-2664, Oct. 1992.
"Measurements of Carbonyl Sulfide in Automotive Emissions
and an Assessment of its Importance to the Global Sulfur
Cycle," A. Fried (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), B.
Henry et al., J. Geophys. Res., 97(D13),
14,621-14,634, Sep. 20, 1992.
Estimates an upper limit for global OCS emissions from
automobiles of 0.008 Tg/yr, 100-600 times less important than the
sum of all OCS sources. However, OCS emissions may be important
on a local scale.
"Dimethyl Sulfide Concentrations in the Surface Waters of
the Australasian Antarctic and Subantarctic Oceans During an
Austral Summer," A.R. McTaggart (Dept. Anal. Chem., Univ.
New S. Wales, Kensington, Australia), H. Burton, J. Geophys.
Res., 97(C9), 14,407-14,412, Sep. 15, 1992.
Ratio of MSA to Non-Sea-Salt Sulphate in Antarctic Peninsula Ice
Cores," R. Mulvaney (Brit. Antarctic Surv., High Cross,
Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), E.C. Pasteur et al., Tellus, 44B(4),
295-303, Sep. 1992.
Methane sulfonic acid (MSA) in an ice core from Dolleman
Island appears in higher concentrations compared to elsewhere in
Antarctica, and shows seasonal anomalies, which are explored
from Atmos. Environ., 26A(13), Sep. 1992:
"Factors Influencing the Atmospheric Flux of Reduced
Sulphur Compounds from North Sea Inter-Tidal Areas," R.M.
Harrison (Sch. Biolog. Sci., Univ. Birmingham, Birmingham B15
2TT, UK), D.B. Nedwell, M.T. Shabbeer, 2381-2387. Measurements
from three types of intertidal sites indicate that intertidal
areas do not significantly contribute to the regional atmospheric
"Cryogenic Trapping of Reduced Sulfur Compounds Using a
Nafion Drier and Cotton Wadding as an Oxidant Scavenger," U.
Hofmann (Biochem. Dept., M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060, D-6500
Mainz, Ger.), R. Hofmann, J. Kesselmeier, 2445-2449.
from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D12), Aug. 20, 1992:
"Simulations of Condensation and Cloud Condensation
Nuclei from Biogenic SO2 in the Remote Marine Boundary
Layer," F. Raes (Environ. Inst., Commission of the European
Communities, I-21020 Ispra, Italy), R. Van Dingenen,
12,901-12,912. An aerosol dynamics model is used to simulate a
number of observations regarding CN and CCN, particularly whether
the processes of homogeneous nucleation and acid condensation are
sufficient to explain the observations, and can help quantify the
link between biogenic SO2 and CCN.
"Modeling the Effects of Heterogeneous Cloud Chemistry on
the Marine Particle Size Distribution," D.A. Hegg (Dept.
Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), P.-F.
Yuen, T.V. Larson, 12,927-12,933. An explicit microphysical model
with size-resolved chemistry suggests that the presence of
alkaline seasalt particles has a significant impact on the
magnitude and properties of sulfate produced in clouds.
"Seasonal Variations of Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide and
Dimethylsulfide Concentrations at Amsterdam Island in the
Southern Indian Ocean," J.P. Putaud (Ctr. Faibles
Radioactiv., Lab. mixte CNRS-CEA, Ave. de la Terrasse, 91198,
Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France), N. Mihalopoulos et al., J.
Atmos. Chem., 15(2), 117-131, Aug. 1992.
items from J. Atmos. Chem., 14(1-4), Apr. 1992:
"Free Tropospheric Reservoir of Natural Sulfate,"
R.J. Delmas (Lab. Glaciol. & Geophys. Environ., BP 96, 38402
St. Martin d'Hères Cedex, France), 261-271. 10Be was used as a
spike of natural background atmospheric aerosol to calculate the
global flux of sulfur into the free troposphere. Results suggest
that most of the sulfur emitted at ground level remains in the
boundary layer. The role of OCS in the upper tropospheric sulfur
budget is reviewed, especially the significant impacts of
"Particle Size Distributions of Methanesulfonate in the
Tropical Pacific Marine Boundary Layer," A.A.P. Pszenny
(NOAA Atlantic Lab., 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami FL 33149),
273-284. Cascade impactor samples are consistent with previous
results suggesting that MSA produced from photochemical oxidation
of DMS condenses preferentially on preexisting particles,
implying that MSA may not contribute appreciably to enhancing CCN
populations in the remote tropical marine atmosphere.
"Sulfur Emissions to the Atmosphere from Natural
Sources," T.S. Bates (PMEL, NOAA, 7600 Sand Pt. Way NE,
Seattle WA 98115), B.K. Lamb et al., 315-337. Measurements of
sulfur gases and fluxes during the past decade were combined to
create a global emission inventory, which takes into account the
seasonal behavior of biogenic sources. Natural emissions are
estimated to be 58% of the total in the Southern Hemisphere but
only 16% in the Northern Hemisphere, showing the impact of
anthropogenic emissions in the north.
"A Time Series for Carbonyl Sulfide in the Northern
Hemisphere," A.R. Bandy (Dept. Chem., Drexel Univ.,
Philadelphia PA 19104), D.C. Thornton et al., 527-534. A grouping
of all measurements made by the researchers for the period
1977-1991 indicates a change with time of OCS between -1.5 and
1.5 ppt per year at the 95% confidence level.
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Index of Abbreviations