February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 11, NOVEMBER 1993
Measurements of Hydrogen Peroxide, Formaldehyde, Calcium and Ammonium
Concentrations Along the New GRIP Ice Core from Summit, Central Greenland,"
K. Fuhrer (Phys. Inst., Univ. Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, Bern 3012, Switz.), A. Neftel
et al., Atmos. Environ., 27A(12), 1873-1880, 1993.
Examines simultaneous variations in the four measured species, which show
considerable changes in the Earth's climate system on time scales of only a few
"Evaluating the Role
of Climate Cooling in Iceberg Production and the Heinrich Events," J.
Oerlemans (Inst. Marine & Atmos. Res., Utrecht Univ., Princetonplein 5, 3584
CC Utrecht, Neth.), Nature, 364(6440), 783-786, Aug. 26, 1993.
The use of a model of the Laurentide ice sheet, driven by variations in
insolation, suggests that documented periods of massive iceberg discharge into
the North Atlantic during the Pleistocene were not a response to climatic
"A d13C Record of
Late Quaternary Climate Change from Tropical Peats in Southern India," R.
Sukumar (Ctr. Ecol. Sci., Indian Inst. Sci., Bangalore-560 012, India), R.
Ramesh et al., ibid., 364(6439), 703-706, Aug. 19, 1993.
The high-altitude record analyzed yields a clear climate signal from the
last glacial maximum, and indicates an arid phase 6-3.5 kyr ago. A short, wet
phase 600 years ago suggests that the Medieval Warm Period may have extended
over the entire Northern Hemisphere.
"Geologic Methane as
a Source for Post-Glacial CO2 Increases: The Hydrocarbon Pump
Hypothesis," C. Loehle (Environ. Res. Div., Argonne Nat. Lab., Argonne IL
60439), Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(14), 1415-1418, July 23, 1993.
Using a simple dynamic model, the hydrocarbon pump, evaluates the hypothesis
that historical CO2 levels could have been governed by releases of
methane from clathrates and as natural gas. This is likely; confirming evidence
Surface Temperature and Salinity Using d18O and Alkenone Records," F.
Rostek (Lab. Géol. Quaternaire, CNRS, Marseille, France), G. Ruhland et
al., Nature, 364(6435), 319-321, July 22, 1993.
Uses a newly developed technique for deriving paleotemperatures, based on
the abundance ratios of unsaturated alkenones in phytoplankton algae, to extend
the reconstruction of the Indian monsoon to 170 kyr, and to demonstrate the
potential of the approach for reconstructing paleosalinity.
"Greenland Ice Core
'Signal' Characteristics: An Expanded View of Climate Change," P.A.
Mayewski (Glacier Res., Inst. Earth/Oceans/Space, Univ. New Hampshire, Durham NH
03824), L.D. Meeker et al., J. Geophys. Res.,
98(D7), 12,839-12,847, July 20, 1993.
Analyzes major ions in the ice core from the present to 670 A.D. to examine
N and S cycling, volcanic emissions, sea salt, and terrestrial influences, using
trend and non-stationary spectral analysis techniques. Finds periodic processes,
which change in frequency and "turn on" and "turn off" with
other climate transitions, such as the Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period.
Two items from Clim.
Change, 24(3), July 1993:
"Sub-Milankovitch Palaeoclimatic Events: Their Recognition and
Correlation," N. Roberts (Dept. Geog., Loughborough Univ. Technol.,
Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK), 175-178. A guest editorial on the
need to establish whether events such as the Little Ice Age were regional or
global in extent before their causes can be understood.
"Synchronized Changes in Regional Water Balance since the Mid-Holocene,"
M. Magaritz (Dept. Environ. Sci., Weizmann Inst. Sci., Rehovot 76100, Israel),
179-185. Presents four records showing short-lived oscillations in parameters
related to water balance during the past 7,000 years, that are not restricted to
times of major climatic transitions and that rival those predicted to occur by
various models during the next century.
Western North America for Rapid Shifts in Climate During the Last Glacial
Maximum," B.D. Allen (Dept. Earth & Plan. Sci., Univ. New Mexico,
Albuquerque NM 87131), R.Y. Anderson, Science, 260(5116),
1920-1923, June 25, 1993.
Presents evidence for strong, rapid pulsations of freshwater stream
discharges based on deposits of quartz sand in a saline lake. The largest pulses
lasted only a few decades.
Two items from Nature,
363(6431), June 24, 1993:
"Not Just a Lot of Hot Air," M. Chandler (NASA Goddard Inst. Space
Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), 673-674. At the spring American
Geophysical Union meeting, a group discussed how the study of past warm climates
holds lessons for future warming.
Correspondence on the need for independent dating and comparison of ice
Signatures in Neogene Fossil Leaves," J. Van Der Burgh, H. Visscher (Lab.
Paleobot., Utrecht Univ., Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, Neth.) et al., Science,
260(5115), 1788-1790, June 18, 1993.
Experiments and observation of vegetation over the past 200 years have shown
that increased atmospheric CO2 results in a decreased number of leaf
stomata. Evidence from fossil stomatal frequencies shows that this relation can
be applied as a bioindicator for changes in CO2 levels during the
past 10 million years.
"A Model Study of
Atmospheric Temperatures and the Concentrations of Ozone, Hydroxyl and Some
Other Photochemically Active Gases During the Glacial, the Pre-Industrial
Holocene and the Present," P.J. Crutzen (Div. Atmos. Chem., M. Planck Inst.
Chem., POB 3060, D-6500 Mainz, Ger.), C. Brühl, Geophys. Res. Lett.,
20(11), 1047-1050, June 7, 1993.
A surprising result of the model analysis is that, despite large changes in
atmospheric contents of CO2, CH4 and N2O,
total ozone and tropospheric OH hardly changed between the glacial and
Special issue: "Quaternary
Earth System Changes," Global Plan. Change, 7(1-3), May
1993 (Elsevier). Contains 19 invited, reviewed papers from a symposium of the
INQUA Congress (Beijing, 1991) organized as a contribution to the IGBP. A common
theme of the papers is the potential application to future climatic changes.
Topics fall into four categories: terrestrial and vegetation changes during the
glacial and non-glacial climatic cycle; behavior of the fluid envelopes (water
cycle, sea level, monsoon circulation); long records from ice cores and
boreholes; and rapid changes ranging from El Niño to periods of a few
Variations Studied," L. Brubaker (College Forest Resour., Univ. Washington,
Seattle WA 98195), Eos, 74(21), 242, May 25, 1993. A synopsis of
the NSF program, Paleoclimates of Arctic Lakes and Estuaries (PALE), including a
related meeting in Vladivostok.
"Differences of the
Atmospheric CH4 Concentration Between the Arctic and Antarctic
Regions in Pre-Industrial/Pre-Agricultural Era," T. Nakazawa (Ctr. Atmos.
Ocean Studies, Tohoku Univ., Sendai, 980 Japan), T. Machida et al.,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(10), 943-946, May 21, 1993.
Comparison of air in ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica suggests that
natural CH4 sources had been stronger in the Northern Hemisphere.
Two items from Science,
260(5110), May 14, 1993:
"How Ice Age Climate Got the Shakes," R.A. Kerr, 890-892. A
comprehensive news feature concerning recent paleostudies (such as the following
paper) showing evidence of rapid climatic fluctuations.
"A Large Drop in Atmospheric 14C/12C and Reduced Melting in the Younger
Dryas, Documented with 230Th Ages of Corals," R.L. Edwards (Isotope Lab.,
Dept. Geol., Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455), J.W. Beck et al., 962-968.
The observed drop coincides with greatly reduced rates of sea level rise.
Results support the hypothesis that diversion of meltwater from the Mississippi
to the St. Lawrence River triggered the Younger Dryas event.
Long-Term Hydrologic Phenomena," H.A. Loaiciga (Dept. Geog., Univ.
California, Santa Barbara CA 93106), L. Haston, J. Michaelsen, Rev. Geophys.,
31(2), 151-171, May 1993.
Reviews some fundamental aspects of dendrohydrology, with a perspective on
its value to hydrologists in pursuit of an understanding of long-term hydrologic
and climatic spatial-temporal behavior.
Two items from Nature,
362(6421), Apr. 15, 1993:
Correspondence on the Devils Hole/Milankovitch theory contradiction, p. 596.
"Variations in Mercury Deposition to Antarctica over the Past 34,000
Years," G.M. Vandal (Dept. Marine Sci., Univ. Connecticut, Avery Point,
Groton CT 06340), W.F. Fitzgerald, et al., 621-623. Ice core analysis shows that
Hg was strikingly elevated during the last glacial maximum when oceanic
productivity may have been higher than today, and that Antarctic Hg may serve as
a paleoproductivity indicator.
dating the Devil's Hole calcite vein, Science,
259(5101), 1626-1627, Mar. 1993.
Coccoliths at the North Pole: Evidence of Ice-Free Conditions and Rapid
Sedimentation in the Central Arctic Ocean," G. Gard (Dept. Geol., Stockholm
Univ., S-106 91 Stockholm, Swed.), Geology, 21(3), 227-230, Mar.
The possible occurrence of ice-free conditions during the past 7,000 years
of the Holocene is suggested by calcerous nanofossils from 39 sites. (For
discussion of the paper and some alternative interpretations see New
Scientist, p. 16, Apr. 10, 1993.)
Change and Transient Climates During the Paleogene--A Marine Perspective,"
J.C. Zachos (Earth Sci. Board, Univ. California, Santa Cruz CA 95064), K.C.
Lohmann et al., J. Geol., 101(2), 191-213, Mar. 1993.
High-latitude sequences recently collected by the Ocean Drilling Program
indicate that periods of rapid climate change often culminated in brief
transient climates, with more extreme conditions than subsequent long-term
climates. Implications for atmospheric CO2 levels are discussed.
Circulation of the Subpolar North Atlantic During the Last Glacial Maximum,"
D.W. Oppo (Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst., Woods Hole MA 02543), S.J. Lehman), Science,
259(5098), 1148-1152, Feb. 19, 1993.
Carbon isotope data from benthic foraminifera show that the North Atlantic
deep waters originating in the southern ocean did not ventilate, as has been
suggested, but were overlain by waters from the polar North Atlantic.
"The Age of the Air
in the Firn and the Ice at Summit, Greenland," J. Schwander (Phys. Inst.,
Univ. Bern, CH-3012, Bern, Switz.), J.-M. Barnola et al., J. Geophys. Res.,
98(D2), 2831-2838, Feb. 20, 1993.
Measurements of CO2, CH4, CFC-11, CFC-12 and other
species in air samples from a drill hole in the firn overlying ice were used to
test diffusion models to investigate the dating of air bubbles trapped in ice.
Unrecognized Late-Glacial Cold Event in Eastern North America," A.J.
Levesque (Dept. Biol., Univ. New Brunswick, Bag. No. 45111, Fredericton NB E3B
6E1, Can.), F.E. Mayle et al., Nature, 361(6413), 623-626, Feb.
18, 1993. (Erratum. See ibid., 363(6425), 188, May 13, 1993.)
Presents evidence for a short but intense cold period in eastern North
America, pre-dating the Younger Dryas, based on the organic, pollen and midge
content of lake sediments.
Oceanic Temperatures from Marine Organic Biogeochemistry, Chemical Fossils and
Molecular Stratigraphy," S.G. Wakeham (Skidaway Inst. Oceanog., Savannah,
Ga.), Environ. Sci. Technol., 27(1), 28-33, Jan. 1993.
A featured review of how organic biomarkers, such as alkenone distributions
in marine sediments, are proving useful in reconstructing climatic history.
Archives of Paleoclimate," J. Ch. Fontes (Lab. Hydrol., Univ. Paris-Sud,
France), M. Stute et al., Eos, 74, 21-22, Jan. 12, 1993.
Report of a meeting (Lamont-Doherty Observatory, Palisades, N.Y., May 1992)
on applying isotopic methods to derive information on climate change during the
last 30,000 years from the groundwater archive.
"Cold Surface Ocean
Ventilation and Its Effect on Atmospheric CO2," R.S. Keir
(GEOMAR, Forschungszentrum für Marine Geowissenschaften, C. Albrechts
Univ., Kiel, Ger.), J. Geophys. Res., 98(C1), 849-856, Jan. 15,
Examines the potential for greater air-sea exchange rates in the northern
Atlantic to decrease atmospheric CO2 during the ice ages using a
simple model of the solubility pump.
Analysis of Spring Rainfall over the Southeastern U.S. for the Past 1000 Years,"
D.W. Stahle (Tree Ring Lab., Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville Ark.), M.K.
Cleaveland, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73(12), 1947-1961, Dec.
Presents millenium-long reconstructions of spring rainfall totals from bald
cypress, in an effort to dispel some of the doubts about interpreting climatic
history from tree-ring data.
Record of Holocene Climate Change in Speleothem Calcite from Cold Water Cave,
Northeast Iowa," J.A. Dorale, L.A. González (Dept. Geol., Univ.
Iowa, Iowa City IA 52242), et al., Science, 258(5088),
1626-1630, Dec. 4, 1992.
Demonstrates the feasibility of extracting a high-resolution climatic record
from speleothem calcite.
Reconstruction Based on Biological Indicators," D.W. Woodcock (Dept. Geog.,
Univ. Hawaii, 2424 Maile Way, Honolulu HI 96822), Quart. Rev. Biol.,
67(4), 457-477, Dec. 1992.
Reviews the major approaches to estimating past climate from biological
data. Although completeness and continuity make marine records the most
important baseline source of information on global change, terrestrial records
establish the complete range of climate variability.
North American Vegetation Change of the Past 18 ka: No-Analogs and the Future,"
J.T. Overpeck (Paleoclim. Prog., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), R.S.
Webb, T. Webb III, Geology, 20(12), 1071-1074, Dec. 1992.
A new series of paleovegetation maps, based on the method of modern analogs
and an extensive data base of modern and fossil pollen data, suggest that
possible future climate changes could force complex changes in natural
vegetation, including the development of biomes without modern analogs.
"Iceberg Calving and
the Glacioclimatic Record," C.R. Warren (Dept. Geog., Univ. Edinburgh,
Drummond St., Edinburgh EH8 9XP, UK), Progr. Phys. Geog., 16(3),
253-282, Sep. 1992.
Reviews the factors influencing iceberg calving, and concludes that it is
rarely possible to make reliable inferences about climate from oscillations in
iceberg calving or in marine ice sheets.
Determination from Cave Calcite Deposits," M. Gascoyne (Appl. Geosci.
Branch, Atomic Energy Canada, Pinawa, Man., R0E 1L0, Can.), Quat. Sci. Rev.,
11(6), 609-632, 1992.
Reviews relevant techniques, particularly U-series and stable isotopes, and
illustrates the possible time resolution and complexities of interpretation
using previously unpublished results from dated calcites from caves in northern
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations