February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 1993
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
$1.5 Billion Question: Can the U.S. Global Change Research
Program Deliver on Its Promises?" R. Monastersky, Science
News, 158-159, Sep. 4, 1993.
Despite increased funds budgeted by the Clinton
Administration, a growing number of critics warn that the
research program appears headed for failure unless fundamental
changes are made. The question posed is: in contrast to the
recent National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, can the
program can be modified to provide the information needed to
develop sound policy in a timely manner?
opposing views from New Scientist:
"How Science Fails the Environment," B. Wynne, S.
Mayer, 33-35, June 5. If politicians don't like uncertainties and
scientists often conceal them, how can we make policies that deal
with the vagaries of the world around us? The onus is still on
environmentalists to prove that a threat exists. Discusses the
ideal characteristics of a "greener" science than is
"The Perils of Green Pessimism," A. Milne, 34-37,
June 12. An industrial chemist argues that if scientists advise
on environmental policy before all of the evidence is in, the
best scientific practice is undermined. Extensively criticizes
the precautionary principle, an increasingly popular notion in
environmental policy making, and the philosophy of the
organization Greenpeace (the affiliation of the second author of
the previous article).
"Beyond the Politics of Blame," J. Beyea, EPRI J.,
14-17, July-Aug. 1993 (Electric Power Res. Inst., POB 10412, Palo
Alto CA 94303).
A chief scientist with the National Audubon Society calls for
the industrial and environmental camps to forgo finger pointing,
discuss their real goals, and start cooperatively crafting a
vision of the future. Hardened adversarial stances are
self-defeating for both sides.
"Processes of International Negotiation," B. Spector, IIASA
Options, 4-12, June 1993 (Intl. Inst. Applied Systems
Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria).
A collection of several features relating to the IIASA project
Processes of International Negotiation. Includes discussion on
post-Rio negotiations, global energy and climate change, and the
Global Environment Facility.
"Carbon Diplomacy in Europe Derails," J. Rose, Environ.
Sci. Technol., p. 1752, Sep. 1993. The demise of the EC's
SAVE initiative on energy efficiency and its impasse on a carbon
tax do not bode well for any future attempt to secure a
world-wide framework for reducing CO2 emissions.
"Britain's Fridges: Too Hot to Handle," D. MacKenzie, New
Scientist, 14-15, Sep. 4, 1993. Better refrigerators could
cut pollution, global warming and electricity bills, but Britain
and Germany are opposing tough new standards for Europe.
"Carbon Dioxide's Taxing Questions," F. Pearce, ibid.,
12-13, June 1993. Discusses the political prospects for
industrial nations to meet the Rio deadline for stabilizing CO2
emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000, and the possible role
of a carbon tax.
"Pioneering Greenhouse Policy," D.M. Roodman, World
Watch, 7-8, July-Aug. 1993 (Worldwatch Inst., 1776 Mass. Ave.
NW, Washington DC 20036). Denmark and the Netherlands are leading
the large industrial nations through their policies on energy
production and energy use.
Clim. Rev. (Dept. Environ. Sci., Univ. Virginia,
Charlottesville VA 22903).
Each 20-page issue of this quarterly research review has a
section comparing recent temperature trends with climate model
forecasts, and summarizes several papers from the recent research
literature. The Summer 1993 issue includes an article on the
possible benefits of increased levels of CO2; the
Spring issue includes staff testimony for Congress on global
"Green Designs on Supersonic Flight," T. Patel, New
Scientist, 35-37, Aug. 14, 1993.
While aerospace manufacturers in Europe and the U.S. press
ahead with development of the next generation of supersonic
jetliners, atmospheric scientists have discovered that the
effects of emissions on the ozone layer could be a much bigger
problem than expected. Discusses competition between the two
continents for the market for supersonic travel.
Pentagon's Green Flag of Convenience," V. Kiernan, ibid.,
American submarines, spy planes and satellites are starting to
become available for the peaceful pursuit of science, but there
are restrictions, and some scientists think the money could be
better spent on wholly civilian projects. The Russians are being
far more accommodating, even to American scientists, than is the
U.S. Navy to scientists collecting data from submarines.
High Cost of Carbon Dioxide," F. Pearce, ibid.,
26-29, July 17, 1993.
An extensive examination of carbon sequestration, a whole new
waste-disposal industry the oil and gas concerns are trying to
invent. Gives the pros and cons of the three major approaches
under discussion: frozen CO2 stored in insulated
masses above the ground; storage of liquid CO2 beneath
the ocean; and storage of carbon in biomass. One version of the
latter, tree planting, is most likely to bring about agreement
between the engineers and environmentalists.
Repair," O. Davies, Omni, 62-67, 92, 94, June 1993.
Scientists are starting to discuss "geoengineering"
schemes to counteract the effects of global air pollution. They
range from fertilizing oceanic plankton to increase their uptake
of CO2, to spreading dust in the upper atmosphere to
act as a global sunshade. A National Academy of Sciences study
recently reviewed the topic.
Second Environmental Science: Human-Environment
Interactions," P.C. Stern, Science, 1897-1899, June
25, 1993. (See Global Climate Change Digest, p. 102,
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