February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 1993
emissions from wetlands may be closely related to net
ecosystem production. This finding provides a means of better
estimating global methane emissions, and suggests a possible
positive feedback mechanism for global warming. (See:
"Primary Production Control of Methane Emission from
Wetlands," G.J. Whiting, J.P. Chanton, ibid., 364(6440),
794-795, Aug. 26, 1993).
emissions from pastures following tropical deforestation may
be overestimated, according to a recent paper by Keller et al.
(See this issue's section on Professional Publications/General
Interest--Science; and see Science News, p. 180, Sep. 18
emissions of CO2 are shown to be larger than
previously thought after measurements by a Russian team. (See:
"Winter Biotic Activity and Production of CO2 in
Siberian Soils: A Factor in the Greenhouse Effect," S.A.
Zimov, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D3), 5017-5023, Mar.
20, 1993. And see Science News, p. 264, Apr. 24 1993.)
fluctuations recently observed in ice cores have now been
found in ocean sediments; the same research reveals a previously
unrecognized pattern of fluctuations in both records. (See
"Correlations Between Climate Records from North Atlantic
Sediments and Greenland Ice," G. Bond, W. Broecker et al., Nature, 365(6442),
Sep. 9, 1993: 143-147.)
surges: A member of a team at Cambridge University studying
Heinrich events in the North Atlantic has summarized some of
their recent results in New Scientist. (See
"Waiting for the Polar Meltdown," M. Maslin, New
Scientist, 36-41, Sep. 4 1993).
destruction by a newly-reported mechanism may help explain
middle latitude stratospheric ozone loss. (See:
"Stratospheric Ozone Depletion by ClONO2 Photolysis,"
R. Toumi, R.L. Jones, J.A. Pyle, Nature, 365(3441),
37-39, Sep. 2, 1993.)
cancer: A recent study finds that visible and UV-A light
effectively induces malignant melanoma, implying that depletion
of the ozone layer would have only a minor effect on the
incidence of melanoma. (See: "Wavelengths Effective in
Induction of Malignant Melanoma," R.B. Setlow, E. Grist et
al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 90(14), 6666-6670, July
1993. Also see news reports in Chem. Eng. News, pp. 7-8,
July 19 1993, and Science News, p. 53, July 24 1993.)
Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC), a new project of
the World Climate Research Program, has just published its first
newsletter, and is about to publish a book, The Role of the
Stratosphere in Global Change, through Springer-Verlag
(Tiergartenstr. 17, 6900 Heidelberg 1, Ger.) Contact SPARC at
Service d'Aéronomie, CNRS, BP 3, 91371 Verrières Le Buisson
Cedex, France (tel: +33-1-64 47 43 15; fax: +33-1-69 20 29 99).
research coordination: The International Arctic Science
Committee has established a Global Change Program Office at the
University of Lapland's Arctic Center in Rovaniemi, Finland.
(Nature, p. 286, Sep. 23.) The office will provide an information
clearinghouse, will monitor and advise projects, particularly on
the role of the Arctic in climate change, and will integrate
research in the natural sciences with social and economic
relationships: Comments on the current unerstanding of the
relationship between global temperature and changes in solar
irradiance are being solicited by two NASA scientists, who feel
the topic deserves more attention in view of concerns over
greenhouse warming. The collection of responses may be published.
Contact Hongsuk Kim and Kenneth Brown, Code 925, NASA-Goddard,
Greenbelt MD 20771 (fax: 301-286-9200).
performance: Fossils from continental interiors indicate that
temperatures there during the Eocene were much warmer than
predicted by current climate models. Modelers have tended to
dismiss this discrepancy, but now paleontologists are fighting
back, coming up with quantitative evidence that puts into
question the ability of such models to simulate future climate
change. (See news article in Science, p. 682, Aug. 6
"Global Warming Cuts No Ice," M. Redfern, New
Scientist, p. 16, Sep. 25. Report of a September meeting in
Cambridge, England, where glaciologists from 22 countries could
not reach a definite conclusion on whether global warming would
cause the Antarctic ice sheet to melt rapidly and cause a
catastrophic rise in sea level.
"Back Through the Nests of Time," J. Hecht, New
Scientist, p. 10, Aug. 28. A paper presented at the
Ecological Society of America meeting concludes that changes in
vegetation in four of America's national parks over the past
century, due to human disturbance, are more extensive than
anything that happened in the previous 5000 years. The changes
would probably mask any effects of global warming for the next 20
Section: "Computing in Science," Science,
Aug. 13. Brief articles include "Fitting Planet Earth into a
User-Friendly Database," pp. 846, 848; "ERS-1: A
Cautionary Tale of Data Overload," p. 847; "Beyond
Databases and E-Mail," pp. 841-843. Includes the major
article "Parallel Scientific Computation" (pp.
"Biological Approaches to Reducing Atmospheric CO2,"
S. Alpert, EPRI Journal, pp. 44-47, Apr.-May (Electric
Power Res. Inst., POB 10412, Palo Alto CA 94303). EPRI research
shows that capturing and sequestering large amounts of CO2
through biological processes may be feasible, but further work is
needed to determine the costs and practicality on a firm
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