February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1994
Role of Whitings in CO2 Circulation and Sequestration," R.A.
Goldstein (Elec. Power Res. Inst., POB 10412, Palo Alto CA
94303), Air & Waste, 44(1), 53, Jan. 1994.
A brief synopsis of the current interest in and state of
research on whitings, clouds of very fine calcium carbonate
crystals of unknown origin that appear for one day to two weeks
in the ocean, producing a CO2 flux into the ocean.
Heterogeneity of Water in Transpiring Leaves: Identification of
the Component That Controls the d18O of Atmospheric O2 and
CO2," D. Yakir (Dept. Environ. Sci., Weizmann Inst. Sci.,
Rehovot 76100, Israel), J.A. Berry et al., Plant, Cell &
Environ., 17(1), 73-80, Jan. 1994.
Results from two direct but independent approaches have
implications for a variety of environmental studies, and suggest
new ways of measuring the global carbon cycle.
from Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(4), Dec. 1993:
"The Biosphere as an Increasing Sink for Atmospheric
Carbon: Estimates from Increased Nitrogen Deposition," D.W.
Schindler (Dept. Zool., Univ. Alberta, Edmonton AB T6G 2E9,
Can.), S.E. Bayley, 717-733. Estimates based in part on recent
ecosystem-scale nutrient studies indicate that 1.0-2.3 Gt/yr of
global C storage may be stimulated by anthropogenic increases in
N deposition in the past century.
"Methane Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emission in
Tallgrass Prairie: Effects of Biomass Burning and Conversion to
Agriculture," C.M. Tate (Water Resour. Div., USGS, Box
25046, MS 413, Denver CO 80225), R.G. Striegl, 735-748. Compares
measurements on unburned and annually burned tallgrass prairie
and adjacent agricultural plots in Kansas, to determine
influences of land use, soil depth and temperature, and crop
"Terrestrial Ecosystem Production: A Process Model Based
on Global Satellite and Surface Data," C.S. Potter (Johnson
Controls, NASA-Ames, Moffet Field CA 94035), J.T. Randerson et
al., 811-841. The model approach described is aimed at seasonal
resolution of global climatic and edaphic controls on patterns of
terrestrial ecosystem production and soil microbial respiration.
"Dissolved Organic Matter and the Glacial-Interglacial
pCO2 Problem," D. Paillard (Lab. Modél. Clim. &
Environ., CEA-DSM, Ctr. d'études de Saclay, Orme des merisiers,
Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191, France), M. Ghil, H. Le Treut, 901-914.
Applies an analytical and a numerical box model to investigate
systematically the effects of a broad range of oceanic
circulation changes on atmospheric CO2, including the effect of
long-lived dissolved organic matter.
Dynamics and Sequestering of Carbon in Tropical and Subtropical
Soils," W.G. Sombroek (FAO, Via della Terme di Carcalla,
00100 Rome, Italy), F.O. Nachtergaele, A. Hebel, Ambio, 22(7),
417-426, Nov. 1993.
Refines current estimates of organic soil carbon pools using
the recent FAO/Unesco Soil Map of the World, emphasizing
the role of sound organic-matter management. Explores the
possibilities for soil-carbon sequestering to offset climate
change, and the possible effects of climate change on the
soil-carbon pool. Recent research on the CO2 fertilization effect
and the associated antitranspiration effect due to elevated CO2
indicate that a positive influence on soil organic carbon levels
Effect of Changing Land Use on Soil Radiocarbon," K.G.
Harrison (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observ., Palisades NY 10964), W.S.
Broecker, G. Bonani, Science, 262(5134), 725-726,
Oct. 29, 1993.
Radiocarbon measurements support the perception that
cultivation has reduced the agricultural reservoir of soil carbon
in humus; the loss is from the fast cycling portion of the humus.
Modeling the Global Carbon Cycle," R. Goldstein (Elec. Power
Res. Inst., POB 10412, Palo Alto CA 94303), EPRI J., pp.
47-50, Oct.-Nov. 1993.
Describes a desktop computer model for clarifying the dynamics
of the carbon cycle, planning experimental research, and
analyzing policy options.
issue: "Terrestrial Biospheric Carbon Fluxes"
(workshop papers), Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 70(1-4),
Oct. 1993. (See GCCD, Dec. 1993.)
from Tellus, 45B(4), Sep. 1993:
"Modelling Feedback Mechanisms in the Carbon Cycle:
Balancing the Carbon Budget," J. Rotmans (Nat. Inst. Public
Health & Environ. Protect.--RIVM, POB 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven,
Neth.), M.G.J. Den Elzen, 301-320. Evaluates the role of a number
of feedback processes using a coupled carbon cycle and climate
model. Makes future projections of CO2 concentration, finding
lower levels than projected in the IPCC estimates. Sensitivity
analyses show a wide range of possible outcomes.
"A Modelling Study of the Effects of Changes in
Atmospheric CO2 Concentration, Temperature and Atmospheric
Nitrogen Input on Soil Organic Carbon Storage," M.U.F.
Kirschbaum (Div. Forestry, CSIRO, POB 4008, QVT, Canberra, ACT
2600, Australia), 321-334. Investigates whether the world's soils
are currently a net source or net sink for carbon, using a model
of soil organic matter coupled to a simple biochemically-based
productivity model. Over the past 130 years, there may have been
an increase in soil organic carbon storage in warmer regions,
whereas in colder regions, it probably decreased.
Mutable Carbon Sink," J. Taylor (Ctr. for Resour. Studies,
Australian Natl. Univ., Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia), Nature, 366(6455),
515-516, Dec. 9, 1993.
Discusses the apparently contradictory conclusions of the
following two papers in Global Biogeochem. Cycles (Sep.
1993) concerning the role of the northern temperate forests in
the CO2 budget.
items from Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(3), Sep.
"Can Climate Variability Contribute to the 'Missing' CO2
Sink?" A. Dai (Dept. Geolog. Sci., Columbia Univ., 2880
Broadway, New York NY 10025), I.Y. Fung, 599-609. Analysis using
empirical models and climatic data shows that climate
perturbations of the past several decades have caused vegetation
to absorb CO2 equivalent to roughly half that required to balance
the carbon budget, mostly in the mid-latitude Northern
"Is Carbon Accumulating in the Northern Temperate
Zone?" R.A. Houghton (Woods Hole Res. Lab., POB 296, Woods
Hole MA 02543), 611-617. Recent analyses showing an accumulation
of carbon in northern temperate forests neglect carbon emissions
from plant material initially held in those forests. When these
are accounted for, the net flux is close to zero, showing that
the forests do not account for the "missing" carbon
"Evaluation of the 13C Constraint on the Uptake of Fossil
Fuel CO2 by the Ocean," W.S. Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Earth
Observ., Palisades NY 10964), T.H. Peng, 619-626. The current
data base is too inaccurate to use the 13C budget to determine
ocean uptake, as proposed by Quay et al.; tracer-verified ocean
GCMs offer much better estimates.
"Geochemical Cycles in an OGCM. Part I: Preindustrial
Tracer Distributions," E. Maier-Reimer (M. Planck Inst.
Meteor., 20146 Hamburg, Ger.), 645-678. A state-of-the-art report
on the Hamburg model of the oceanic carbon cycle.
13C/12C Observations: A New Window on Ocean CO2 Uptake,"
P.P. Tans (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.A.
Berry, R.F. Keeling, ibid., 7(2), 353-368, June
Develops equations for the rate of change of C isotope ratios
in the atmosphere and oceans in terms of d13C quantities. Use of
the ratio has advantages, but requires accurate measurements.
in Soil Carbon Inventories Following Cultivation of Previously
Untilled Soils," E.A. Davidson (Woods Hole Res. Ctr., POB
296, Woods Hole MA 02543), I.L. Ackerman, Biogeochem., 20(3),
161-193, Mar. 1993.
Uses data from several recent studies to reexamine the
conclusions of previous reviews, and confirms the general
conclusion that 20-40% (best estimate 30%) of the soil C is lost
Atmospheric Oxygen Measurements Can Tell Us About the Global
Carbon Cycle," R.F. Keeling (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO
80307), M.L. Bender et al., Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(1),
37-68, Mar. 1993.
An analysis using a 2-D model to relate changes in the O2/N2
ratio to sources of O2 shows that measurements of the seasonal O2
variations can place new constraints on large-scale marine
productivity. Measurements of the north-south gradient and
depletion rate of O2 can help determine the rates and
geographical distribution of net C storage in terrestrial
Tillage Impacts on National Soil and Atmospheric Carbon
Levels," J.S. Kern (ManTech Environ. Technol. Inc., U.S. EPA
Environ. Res. Lab., Corvallis OR 97333), M.G. Johnson, Soil
Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 57(1), 200-210, Jan.-Feb. 1993.
Calculated changes in soil organic C content and fossil fuel C
emissions in the contiguous U.S. in response to adoption of
conservation tillage, through the year 2020. For 76% conversion
to conservation tillage, the soil organic carbon benefit is
equivalent to 0.7-1.1% of the total projected U.S. fossil fuel C
emissions over the period.
and Carbon Storage of the North American Deciduous Forest,"
D.B. Botkin (Dept. Biolog. Sci., Univ. California, Santa Barbara
CA 93106), Biogeochem., 20(1), 1-17, Jan. 1993.
The new estimate presented here is lower than previous ones,
and together with previous estimates for the boreal forest,
begins to reveal a pattern of overestimation of global C storage
by vegetation in the global C budget. Discusses reasons and
Based on a Climosequence of Soils in Tussock Grasslands, of Soil
Carbon Storage and Release in Response to Global Warming,"
K.R. Tate (DSIR, Lower Hutt, N.Z.), J. Soil Sci., 43(4),
697-707, Dec. 1992. (See GCCD, Dec. 1993.)
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations