February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1994
- STRATOSPHERIC OZONE CHEMISTRY AND DYNAMICS
items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(23), Dec. 14,
"Contribution to the Ozone Trend of Heterogeneous
Reactions of ClONO2 on the Sulfate Aerosol Layer," G. Pitari
(Dip. Fis., Univ. L'Aquila, 67010 Coppito L'Aquila, Italy),
2663-2666. Used a 2-D model to calculate the relative importance
of the reactions of N2O5 and water, ClONO2 with HCl, and ClONO2
"Altitude Dependence of Stratospheric Ozone Trends Based
on Nimbus 7 SBUV Data," L.L. Hood (Lunar & Planet. Lab.,
Univ. Arizona, Tuscon AZ 85721), R.D. McPeters et al., 2667-2670.
Significant ozone losses occur at latitudes >20· in both
hemispheres. Observed latitude dependence is qualitatively
consistent with model predictions.
"Northern Hemisphere Mid-Stratosphere Vortex Processes
Diagnosed from H2O, N2O and Potential Vorticity," W.A. Lahoz
(Dept. Meteor., Edinburgh Univ., Edinburgh, Scotland EH9 3JZ,
UK), E.S. Carr et al., 2671-2674. Measurements show little
large-scale mixing at the vortex edge, descent of dry air from
the mesosphere, descent of moist air from the stratosphere, and a
reduction in vortex size.
items from J. Geophys. Res., 98(D11), Nov. 20,
"A Two-Dimensional Model with Coupled Dynamics,
Radiation, and Photochemistry. 1. Simulation of the Middle
Atmosphere," M.K.W. Ko (Atmos. Environ. Res. Inc., 840
Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA 02139), H.R. Schneider et al.,
20,429-20,440. Kyy values and parameterization of the
tropospheric heating rate in the model reflect asymmetry between
the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, and allow the model to
successfully simulate the observed asymmetry in the column
abundance of the springtime ozone maxima.
"...2. Assessment of the Response of Stratospheric Ozone
to Increased Levels of CO2, N2O, CH4 and CFC," H.R.
Schneider (Div. Appl. Sci., Pierce Hall, Harvard Univ., Cambridge
MA 02138), M.K.W. Ko et al., 20,441-20,449. CO2 doubling
increases global ozone content. A CFC increase causes a loss of
ozone, which is less pronounced if the other gases also increase.
Ozone losses show a north-south asymmetry, being larger in the
high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.
"Effective Bass-Paur 1985 Ozone Absorption Coefficients
for Use with Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometers," W.D. Komhyr
(CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), C.L. Mateer, R.D.
Hudson, 20,451-20,465. The new coefficients, which have been
sanctioned by the WMO, yield total ozone amounts 2.6% smaller
than values obtained up through 1991.
"Fourier Transform-Infrared Studies of Thin H2SO4/H2O
Films: Formation, Water Uptake, and Solid-Liquid Phase
Changes," A.M. Middlebrook (CIRES, Campus Box 216, Univ.
Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), L.T. Iraci et al., 20,473-20,481.
Results show that H2SO4 films absorb water while cooling in the
presence of water vapor, that films crystallize mainly as
sulfuric acid tetrahydrate, and that once frozen, H2SO4 aerosols
melt at temperatures 30 K colder than previously thought.
"A Possible Role of Galactic Cosmic Rays in Chlorine
Activation During Polar Night," R. Müller (Airchem. Dept.,
M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060, D-6500 Mainz, Ger.), P.J.
Crutzen, 20,483-20,490. Suggests that the production of NO
radicals by the action of galactic cosmic rays enhances the
reaction of N2O5 with HCl to produce active chlorine. The rays
also form OH radicals which further augment HCl processing.
"Retrieval of Stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 Profiles
from 1992 MIPAS-B Limb Emission Spectra: Method, Results, and
Error Analysis," T. von Clarmann (Inst. Meteor. & Klim.,
Univ. Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Ger.), H.
Fischer et al., 20,495-20,506.
"Stratospheric OH Measurements with a Far-Infrared Limb
Observing Spectrometer," H.M. Pickett (Jet Propulsion Lab.,
4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), D.B. Peterson,
20,507-20,515. Discusses concept and calibration as well as
of HCl in Sulfuric Acid at Stratospheric Temperatures," L.R.
Williams (Molecular Phys. Lab., SRI Intl., 333 Ravenswood Ave.,
Menlo Pk. CA 94025), D.M. Golden, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(20),
2227-2230, Oct. 22, 1993. Measurements show that very little HCl
will dissolve in stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles.
from J. Geophys. Res., 98(D10), Oct. 20, 1993:
"Characteristics of Wintertime and Autumn Nitric Acid
Chemistry as Defined by Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere
(LIMS) Data," R.B. Rood (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771),
A.R. Douglass et al., 18,533-18,545. The 3-D model can simulate
observations if it incorporates chemical processes with
timescales shorter than the advective timescale that maintains
"Effect of Mount Pinatubo Aerosols on Total Ozone
Measurements from Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV)
Experiments," P.K. Bhartia (address immed. above), J. Herman
et al., 18,547-18,554. Errors in total ozone derived from the
aerosol-contaminated radiances are generally less than 2% and
vary in magnitude and in sign with angles of observation.
"Anomalous Antarctic Ozone during 1992: Evidence for
Pinatubo Volcanic Aerosol Effects," D.J. Hofmann (NOAA CMDL,
325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), S.J. Oltmans, 18,555-18,561.
H2SO4 droplets, which formed in the stratosphere after the
eruption and were trapped in the south polar vortex, are the most
likely cause of the unusually severe Antarctic ozone depletion.
"Chaotic Advection in the Stratosphere: Implications for
the Dispersal of Chemically Perturbed Air from the Polar
Vortex," R.B. Pierce (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665),
T.D.A. Fairlie, 18,589-18,595. Provides evidence for chaotic
advection near the edge of the polar vortex, which leads to rapid
mixing of vortex air with tropical and midlatitude air.
"Electron Scavenging of Stratospheric Chlorine to Reduce
Ozone Depletion: Will It Work?" S.S. Prasad (Creative Res.
Enterprises, POB 174, Pleasanton CA 94566), 18,597-18,598. The
recently proposed scheme may be less efficient than originally
thought due to the rapid photodetachment of Cl-1 by sunlight.
items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(19), Oct. 8,
"Intercomparison of Total Ozone Measured at Low Sun
Angles by the Brewer and Dobson Spectrophotometers at Scott Base,
Antarctica," S.E. Nichol (Natl. Inst. Water & Atmos.
Res., POB 31311, Lower Hutt, N.Z.), C. Valenti, 2051-2054. Dobson
and Brewer data are both generally within ±5% of the TOMS value.
"Determination of Total Ozone over Mauna Loa Using Very
High Resolution Infrared Solar Spectra," S.J. David (Dept.
Phys., Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208), S.A. Beaton et al.,
2055-2058. Fourier transform infrared and Dobson data agreed to
"Stratospheric Trace Gas Concentrations in the Arctic
Polar Night Derived by FTIR-Spectroscopy with the Moon as IR
Light Source," J. Notholt (Alfred Wegener Inst. Polar &
Meeresforsch., Postfach 600149, D-14401 Potsdam, Ger.), R. Neuber
et al., 2059-2062. Obtained column densities of trace gases
during the week around full moon. Aerosol lidar measurements
showed that concentrations of the gases are strongly influenced
by polar stratospheric clouds.
related items from Nature, 365(6446), Oct. 7, 1993:
"Mixing and Matching," A. Plumb (Dept. Earth Sci.,
Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), 490-491. Discusses the
next two papers.
"Stratospheric Transport from the Tropics to Middle
Latitudes by Planetary-Wave Mixing," W.J. Randel (NCAR, POB
3000, Boulder CO 80307), J.C. Gille et al., 533-535. Maps of N2O
and H2O mixing ratios obtained by satellite show planetary-scale
"tongues" of tropical stratospheric air extending into
middle latitudes, in sequences of irreversible mixing which could
be responsible for significant latitudinal transport.
"Subtropical Stratospheric Mixing Linked to Disturbances
in the Polar Vortices," D.W. Waugh (Ctr. Meteor., Mass.
Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), 535-537. High-resolution
contour-trajectory calculations suggest that tongues of tropical
air in the previous paper are associated with disturbances of the
stratospheric polar vortices.
from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(18), Sep. 15, 1993:
"Decrease of Stratospheric NO2 at 44·N Caused by
Pinatubo Volcanic Aerosols," M. Koike (Solar-Terres.
Environ. Lab., Nagoya Univ., Toyokawa, Aichi, Japan), Y. Kondo et
al., 1975-1978. Lidar and SAGE II satellite data show that major
reductions in NO2 generally correspond to the arrival of volcanic
aerosols above 25 km.
"Record Low Ozone Values over Canada in Early 1993,"
J.B. Kerr (Atmos. Environ. Serv., 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview ON
M3H 5T4, Can.), D.I. Wardle, D.W. Tarasick, 1979-1982. Ozone
levels were 11-17% below normal at the same altitudes where
aerosols from the Mount Pinatubo eruption were observed.
Chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O System: Implications for Polar
Stratospheric Clouds [PSCs]," M.J. Molina (Dept. EAPS,
54-1320, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), R. Zhang et
al., Science, 261(5127), 1418-1423, Sep. 10, 1993.
Laboratory experiments show that H2SO4/H2O aerosols absorb
HNO3 vapor leading to crystallization of nitric acid trihydrate
(NAT). The frozen particles grow to form PSCs by condensation of
additional HNO3 and H2O. Chlorine radical precursors are formed
readily on NAT, ice crystals, liquid H2SO4 and H2SO4 hydrates.
from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(17), Sep. 3, 1993:
"The Performance of a New Instrument for In Situ
Measurements of ClO in the Lower Stratosphere," D.W. Toohey
(Dept. Geosci., Univ. Calif., Irvine CA 92717), L.M. Avallone et
al., 1791-1794. The instrument is light-weight, yet precise and
"Balloon-Borne In Situ Measurements of ClO and
Ozone: Implications for Heterogeneous Chemistry and Mid-Latitude
Ozone Loss," L.M. Avallone (Dept. Chem., Harvard Univ.,
Cambridge MA 02138), D.W. Toohey et al., 1795-1798. Incorporation
into a model of N2O5 hydrolysis on sulfate aerosols improves
agreement between in situ measurements and model
Section: "Arctic Ozone: AASE II Observations," Science, 261(5125),
Aug. 27, 1993.
"Probing Stratospheric Ozone," J.M. Rodriguez
(Atmos. Environ. Res. Inc., 840 Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA
02139), 1128-1129. Results in this summary paper including a
correlation between high concentrations of ClO and polar
stratospheric cloud formation; first-time in situ measurements of
HCl; the relative importance of HCl in the midlatitude
atmosphere; increased ClO after a Pinatubo eruption; consistency
of results among different observations and methods to derive
ozone losses; qualitative consistency of results with UARS
"Chlorine Chemistry on Polar Stratospheric Cloud
Particles in the Arctic Winter," C.R. Webster, R.D. May et
"The Seasonal Evolution of Reactive Chlorine in the
Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere," D.W. Toohey (Dept.
Geosci., Univ. Calif., Irvine CA 92717), L.M. Avallone et al.,
"Heterogeneous Reaction Probabilities, Solubilities, and
the Physical State of Cold Volcanic Aerosols," O. Toon (NASA
Ames Res. Ctr., Moffett Field CA 94035), E. Browell et al.,
"In Situ Observations of Aerosol and Chlorine Monoxide
After the 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo: Effect of Reactions on
Sulfate Aerosol," J.C. Wilson (Dept. Eng., Univ. Denver,
Denver CO 80208), H.H. Jonsson et al., 1140-1143.
"Stratospheric Meteorological Conditions in the Arctic
Polar Vortex, 1991 to 1992," P. Newman (NASA-Goddard,
Greenbelt MD 20771), L.R. Lait et al., 1143-1146.
"Chemical Loss of Ozone in the Arctic Polar Vortex in the
Winter of 1991-1992," R.J. Salawitch (Div. Appl. Sci.,
Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), S.C. Wofsy et al., 1146-1149.
"Ozone Loss Inside the Northern Polar Vortex During the
1991-1992 Winter," M.H. Proffitt (CIRES, Univ. Colorado,
Boulder CO 80309), K. Aikin et al., 1150-1154.
"Ozone and Aerosol Changes During the 1991-1992 Airborne
Arctic Stratospheric Expedition," E.V. Browell
(NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), C.F. Butler et al., 1155-1158.
Retrieval Method for Atmospheric Composition from Limb Emission
Measurements," C.J. Marks (Inst. Geophys., Victoria Univ.,
POB 600, Wellington, N.Z.), C.D. Rodgers, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D8),
14,939-14,953, Aug. 20, 1993.
Describes a fast method to accurately calculate radiance
derivatives required for nonlinear optimal estimation algorithms.
items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(15), Aug. 6,
"Ozonesonde Measurements at Hilo, Hawaii, Following the
Eruption of Pinatubo," D.J. Hoffmann (CMDL, NOAA, 325
Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), S.J. Oltmans et al., 1555-1558.
Ozone was lower than normal below 25 km and higher than normal
above 25 km. The persistent nature of the perturbation can not be
"Kinetics of the Reaction of CH3O2 with ClO at 293
K," R.D. Kenner (CSIRO Div. Appl. Phys., Lindfield, 2070
Australia), K.R. Ryan, I.C. Plumb, 1571-1574.
"Reexamination of the Relation Between Depth of the
Antarctic Ozone Hole, and Equatorial QBO [quasi-biennial
oscillation] and SST [sea-surface temperature], 1962-1992,"
J.K. Angell (ARL, NOAA, Silver Spring MD 20910), 1559-1562.
from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(14), July 23, 1993:
"A Comparison of Observed (Haloe) and Modeled (CCM2)
Methane and Stratospheric Water Vapor," P.W. Mote (Dept.
Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), J.R.
Holton et al., 1419-1422. Model calculations compared well to
measurements of: subsidence over a deep layer in the Southern
Hemisphere polar vortex; widespread dehydration in the polar
vortex; and existence of a region of low water vapor mixing
ratios from the Antarctic into the Northern Hemisphere tropics.
"Mechanisms of Formation of Stratospheric Clouds Observed
During the Antarctic Late Winter of 1992," G.P. Gobbi (Ist.
Fis. Atmos. CNR, via G. Galilei, CP27, 00044 Frascati, Italy), A.
Adriani, 1427-1430. Large particles in the air parcels can
survive for several days in undersaturated air, and when cooled
further can act as preferential growth nuclei.
errors and ozone measurement, Nature, 364(6434),
198, July 15, 1993.
Flow on Antarctic Vortex," W. Randel (NCAR, POB 3000,
Boulder CO 80307), Nature, 364(6433), 105-106, July
A research news note on work presented at an American
Geophysical Union meeting (Baltimore, May 1993). Data suggest
that, due to rapid transit through the polar vortex, air outside
the vortex has experienced the conditions within the vortex and
affects ozone depletion in the middle and low latitudes.
Climate Summary: The Global Climate of September-November 1990:
ENSO-Like Warming in the Western Pacific and Strong Ozone
Depletion over Antarctica," K.C. Mo (Clim. Anal. Ctr., NOAA,
Washington DC 20233), J. Clim., 6(7), 1375-1391,
July 1993. Includes a description of the meteorological setting
for this year's Antarctic ozone depletion.
Section: "The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite
(UARS): Results from the First Year and a Half of
Operations," Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(12), June
18, 1993. Includes 29 papers.
the Adsorption of NO and NO2 on Cold H2O/H2SO4 Surfaces,"
O.W. Saastad (Dept. Chem., Univ. Oslo, POB 1033, Blindern, N-0315
Oslo, Nor.), T. Ellermann, C.J. Nielsen, ibid., 1191-1193.
Laboratory experiments show that formation of nitrosyl
sulfuric acid by adsorption of NO and NO2 on cold H2SO4 particles
is unlikely to be important in the stratosphere.
of OClO in the 2000 cm-1 Region: The 2-u-1 and u-1+u-3
Bands," J. Ortigoso (CSIC, Inst. Estructura Mat., Serrano
119/E-28006 Madrid, Spain), R. Escribano et al., J. Molecular
Spectrosc., 158(2), 347-356, Apr. 1993.
Studies of Atmospheric Chemistry Species. 4. On the
Thermodynamics of the ClOO and OClO Radicals," Z. Slanina
(M. Planck Inst. Chem., W-6500 Mainz, Ger.), F. Uhlik, Thermochimica
Acta, 216, 81-85, Mar. 22, 1993.
Vertical Distribution in the Tropics," B.H. Subbaraya (Phys.
Res. Lab., Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat, India), Current Sci., 64(5),
339-344, Mar. 10, 1993.
Measurements revealed some new features of the photochemical
and dynamic control of O3 at stratospheric and mesospheric
for Vertical Ozone Redistribution Since 1967," R. Furrer
(Inst. Weltraumwiss., Free Univ. Berlin, Fabeckstr. 69, W-1000
Berlin 33, Ger.), W. Dohler et al., Surveys Geophys., 14(2),
197-222, Mar. 1993. Data evaluation reveals significant long-term
Ozone from NOAA Satellites in the Australian Region," Z.-J.
Wu (Bur. Meteor. Res. Ctr., GPO Box 1289K, Melbourne, VIC 3001,
Australia), J.L. Marshall, Aust. Meteor. Mag., 40(4),
205-210, Dec. 1992. Compares results from a new algorithm with
those from the original one and with surface-based observations.
in Total Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide in the Arctic Atmosphere
during the Polar Night of 1989/90 and 1990/91," V.M.
Dorokhov, V.E. Fioletov, V.I. Sitnikova, Soviet Meteor.
Hydrol., No. 6, 42-46 (p. 54 Russian), 1992.
Presents the results of observations at 81·N which, in winter
1990-1991, did not show substantial anomalies in total ozone.
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