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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 7, JULY 1994

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... GLOBAL AND REGIONAL MODELING


Item #d94jul97

"Rising Temperatures in the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean over the Past 35 Years," G. Parrilla (Inst. Español Oceanog., Corazón Maria 8, 28002 Madrid, Spain), A. Lavin et al., Nature, 369(6475), 48-51, May 5, 1994.

The maximum warming observed, one degree per century, occurs at 1100 m depth in the interior ocean, in contrast to the surface warming predicted by models.


Item #d94jul98

Two items from J. Clim., 7(5), May 1994:

"A GCM Simulation of Global Climate Trends: 1950-1988," I.N. Smith (CSIRO, Priv. Bag 1, Mordialloc 3195, Australia), 732-744. Simulated changes in land-surface temperature are less than observed, suggesting that factors other than sea surface temperature changes, including greenhouse warming, may have been operating.

"Observed Dependence of Outgoing Longwave Radiation [OLR] on Sea Surface Temperature and Moisture," A. Raval (GFDL, POB 308, Princeton NJ 08542), A.H. Oort, V. Ramaswamy, J. Clim., 7(5), 807-821, May 1994. Suggests that the observed dependence (based on four years of ERBE data) be a minimum performance standard for climate models. Illustrates this approach using GCM output.


Item #d94jul99

"Global Biogeochemical Cycling Estimates with CZCS [Coastal Zone Color Scanner] Satellite Data and General Circulation Models," D.J. Erickson III (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), B.E. Eaton, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(8), 683-686, Apr. 23, 1993.

Describes a conceptual and computational method for integrating future satellite data with 3-dimensional chemistry-climate prediction models, using OCS as an example.


Item #d94jul100

"Approaches of Comparison for Clear-Sky Radiative Fluxes from General Circulation Models with Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Data," M.H. Zhang (Inst. Terr. Atmos., State Univ. of New York, Stoney Brook NY 11794), R.D. Cess et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D3), 5515-5523, Mar. 20, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 3, May 1994)


Item #d94jul101

Three items from J. Clim., 7(3), Mar. 1994:

"Regional Climate Change Scenarios over the United States Produced with a Nested Regional Climate Model," F. Giorgi (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), C.S. Brodeur, G.T. Bates, 375-399. Used versions of the NCAR Community Climate Model and the NCAR/Penn State mesoscale model to illustrate the feasibility of the nested modeling technique for long-term regional climate simulation.

"GCM Simulations of the Three-Dimensional Propagation of Stationary Waves," S. Yang, W.J. Gutowski Jr. (Atmos. Sci., Iowa State Univ., 3010 Agron. Bldg., Ames IA 50011), 414-433. Used versions of the GFDL and NCAR models to simulate the sources, sinks, and horizontal propagation of atmospheric stationary waves, which play an important role in regional climate. Simply increasing model resolution will not improve simulation; more knowledge about the physics governing storm tracks and latent heat release in the atmosphere is needed.

"An Assessment of Possible Climate Change in the Australian Region Based on an Intercomparison of General Circulation Modeling Results," P.H. Whetton (CSIRO Div. Atmos. Res., Pvt. Bag 1, Mordialloc, Vic., 3195 Australia), P.J. Rayner et al., J. Clim., 7(3), 441-463, Mar. 1994. (See GCCD, p. 11, Mar. 1994)


Item #d94jul102

"Regional Climates in the GISS General Circulation Model: Surface Air Temperature," B. Hewitson (Dept. Environ. & Geog. Sci., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch, S. Africa), ibid., 7(2), 283-303, Feb. 1994.

Uses a statistical technique based on principal component analysis to study regional climate change in the continental U.S., and compares the results with those derived from model simulations.


Item #d94jul103

"Ice-Age Tropics Revisited," D.M. Anderson (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), R.S. Webb, Nature, 367(6458), Jan. 6, 1994.

Discusses discrepancies between marine and terrestrial indicators of tropical climate during the last glacial period, and between model simulations and observations.


Item #d94jul104

"Survey of Perceived Priority Issues in the Parameterizations of Cloud-Related Processes in GCMs," K.A. Browning (Joint Ctr. Mesoscale Meteor., Univ. Reading, Whiteknights Rd., POB 240, Reading RG6 2FN, UK), Quart. J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 120(516), 483-487, Jan. Part B.

Summarizes responses to a survey by the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment of the World Climate Research Programme. Major issues were cloud cover; optical properties of clouds; redistribution of heat, moisture and momentum by clouds; distribution of precipitation; and coupling between physical processes.


Item #d94jul105

"Surface Heat Flux Parameterization and the Response of Ocean General Circulation Models to High-Latitude Freshening," S.B. Power (BMRC, GPO Box 1289K, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia), R. Kleeman, Tellus, 46A(1), 86-95, Jan. 1994.

Used an ocean general circulation model with mixed boundary conditions (a restoring condition on the upper level temperature but a fixed, specified surface salt flux). Discusses implications of the finding that model response depends on the details of the parameterization of surface heat flux.


Item #d94jul106

"Physiological Derivation of the Observed Relationship Between Net Primary Production [NPP] and Mean Annual Air Temperature," G.B. Bonan (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), Tellus, 45B(5), 397-408, Nov. 1993.

Presents a forest carbon exchange model that may provide a means of integrating terrestrial carbon flux into global climate models.


Item #d94jul107

"Random Walk Expectancies for Recent Global Climate, and in an Enhanced Greenhouse Warming," A.H. Gordon (Sch. Earth Sci., Flinders Univ. S. Australia, POB 2100, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia), J.A.T. Bye, Global & Planet. Change, 8, 181-188, 1993.

Analysis of observed temperatures and GCM simulated temperatures suggests that the statistical properties of temperature would change with enhanced greenhouse warming.


Item #d94jul108

"Possible Effects of Anthropogenically-Increased CO2 on the Dynamics of Climate: Implications for Ice Age Cycles," B. Saltzman (Dept. Geol. & Geophys., Yale Univ., POB 6666, New Haven CT 06511), K.A. Maasch, M.Ya. Verbitsky, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(11), 1051-1054, June 7, 1993.

Used a dynamical model to demonstrate that the anthropogenically forced increase of atmospheric CO2, if maintained over a long period of time, could displace the climatic system from a regime of oscillating ice ages into a more stable regime representative of the pre-Pleistocene.


Item #d94jul109

"Comparisons of Modelled and Observed Climate for Impact Assessments," P.J. Robinson (Dept. Geog., Univ. N. Carolina, Chapel Hill NC 27514), A.N. Samel, G. Madden, Theor. Appl. Clim., 48(2-3), 75-87, 1993.

For the southeast U.S., the GFDL model showed greater extremes of temperature, an overabundance of hot spells and a different number of raindays.


Item #d94jul110

"Time-Dependent Greenhouse Warming Computations with a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model," U. Cubasch (M. Planck Inst. Meteor., Bundesstr. 55, W-2000 Hamburg 13, Ger.), K. Hasselmann et al., Climate Dynamics, 8(2), 55-69, Dec. 1992.

Model simulations for climate change over the next century due to anthropogenic emissions show a near-surface temperature increase of 2.6 K for a "business-as-usual" scenario, and a 0.6 K increase for an "accelerated-policies" scenario.

Specialized Papers


Item #d94jul111

"Estimation of Surface Albedo from Space: A Parameterization for Global Application," Z. Li (CCRS, 588 Booth St., Ottawa ON K1A 0Y7), J. Geophys. Res., 99(D4), 8335-8350, Apr. 20, 1994.

Discussion on "The Parametrization of Rainfall Interception in GCMs" by A.J. Dolman and D. Gregory (April 1992, 118, 445-467), E.A.B. Eltahir, R.L. Bras (Parsons Lab., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), Quart. J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 120(517), 733-738, Apr. 1994.


Item #d94jul112

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D2), Feb. 20, 1994:

"Timescales in Energy Balance Climate Models. 1. The Limiting Case Solutions," R.G. Watts (Dept. Mech. Eng., Tulane Univ., New Orleans LA 70118), M.C. Morantine, K.A. Rao, 3631-3641.

"...2. The Intermediate Time Solutions," M.C. Morantine (addr. immed. above), R.G. Watts, 3643-3653.


Item #d94jul113

Two items from ibid., 99(D1), Jan. 20, 1994:

"Evaluation of Water Vapor Distribution in General Circulation Models Using Satellite Observations," B.J. Soden (Atmos. & Oceanic Sci. Prog., GFDL, Princeton Univ., POB 308, Princeton NJ 08542), F.P. Bretherton, 1187-1210.

"Climatology and Natural Variability of the Global Hydrologic Cycle in the GLA Atmospheric General Circulation Model," K.-M. Lau (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), V.M. Mehta et al., 1329-1345.

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