February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 7, JULY 1994
REPORTS... GENERAL AND POLICY
Change: Policy Instruments and Their Implications--Proceedings of
the Tsukuba Workshop of the IPCC Working Group III, Tsukuba,
Japan, 17-20 January, 1994, A. Amano et al., Eds., 407 pp.,
1994. Ctr. Global Environ. Res., Natl. Inst. Environ. Studies,
Environ. Agency of Japan, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305,
The workshop was held to provide input to the preparation of
the Secondary Assessment Report of the IPCC, especially
with regard to the assessment of policy instruments for
preventing global climate change (taxes, subsidies, regulatory
measures and joint implementation). It also was expected to lead
to better understanding of IPCC activities and enhance response
capabilities to climate change in the Asia-Pacific region.
Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies: Phase Two--Comparing
the Cost; Methodological Framework and Results of the Country
Studies to Assess Greenhouse Gas Abatement Options [summary
document]. Part One: Main Report; Part Two: Country Summaries;
Appendix: Guidelines, 1994. UNEP Collaborating Ctr. on Energy
& Environ., Ris_ Natl. Lab., POB 49, DK4000 Roskilde, Denmark
(tel: +45 4632 2288; fax: +45 4632 1999). Copies of complete
country-studies are available directly from each of the 10
countries; for addresses see Part Two.
Phase two was designed to develop and test methodologies for
estimating the costs of limiting greenhouse gas emissions by
developing countries, by applying consistent guidelines; and to
build up capacity for conducting such analyses in these
countries. Describes the results from 10 developing and
industrialized countries where the common methodology was used.
(See feature article in Energy, Econ. & Clim. Change,
2-5, July 1994.)
Review of Country Case Studies on Climate Change (GEF Paper
7), J. Fuglesvedt, T. Hanisch et al., 70 pp., Feb. 1994, $6.95.
World Bank Pubs., 1818 H St. NW, Washington DC 20433
The fourth in a five-volume series concerning the Program for
Measuring Incremental Costs for the Environment (PRINCE).
Examines several methodological and reporting issues and stresses
the importance of comparability.
of Future Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction in Nine Industrial
Countries--Executive Summary (ECN-C--94-025), T. Kram, Mar.
1994, 16 pp. Netherlands Energy Res. Foundation (ECN), POB 1,
1755 ZG Petten, Neth. (tel: +31 2246 4949).
Summarizes a coordinated analysis of the nine countries using
the MARKAL model, under the International Energy Agency's Energy
Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP). For each country,
determines the mix of energy technologies that would produce a
range of national emission reductions at the lowest total energy
system cost. Results show considerable diversity.
Change Policy Initiatives--1994 Update, Volume 1, OECD Countries,
Intl. Energy Agency, 1994, $53/FF 300/DM 90. OECD Pubs., 2001 L
St. NW, S-700, Washington DC 20036 (202-785-6323); or OECD, 2,
rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France (tel:
Presents the IEA's account of its member countries'
commitments to limit greenhouse gas emissions, and actions taken
or planned. Between 1990 and 1992, seven OECD countries had
emissions decline by an average of 5.25 %, while in the other 16
countries and the European Union emissions rose by an average of
Development Report 1994, U.N. Development Program, 1994.
Available from Oxford Univ. Press, 2001 Evans Rd., Cary NC 27413
(800-451-7556); or Saxon Way West, Corby, Northants NN18 9ES, UK
Suggests a variety of ways that industrialized countries could
fund limitations of greenhouse gas emissions. These include
global tradable pollution allowances that could generate $500
billion to $1 trillion in funding from industrialized countries
to developing nations. Other sources include capturing the peace
dividend from cuts in military spending, taxing spot transactions
in foreign exchange, and global taxes on oil and coal
consumption. See Intl. Environ. Rptr., p. 510, June 15,
the Global Environment Challenge: A Progress Report on World Bank
Global Environment Operations, 23 pp., plus appendix,
Mar.-May 1994. A bimonthly report from Global Environ.
Coordination Div., The World Bank, 1818 H St. NW, Rm. S-2145,
Washington DC 20433 (202-473-1816). This new publication replaces
the former Monthly Operations Report; complimentary
one-year subscriptions are being offered.
In this issue are a progress report on the World Bank's global
environmental operations (not all of which relate to climate
change or stratospheric ozone depletion), and tables of the
status of GEF projects (country, description, phase, funding
level, and program status).
Signs 1994--The Trends That Are Shaping Our Future, L.R.
Brown, H. Kane, D.M. Roodman, 160 pp., 1994, $10.95. Worldwatch
Inst., 1776 Mass. Ave. NW, Washington DC 20036 (202-452-1999).
The overview and several key indicators in this periodic
publication relate to climate change, greenhouse gases and
stratospheric ozone depletion. The overview includes,
"Saving the Ozone Layer." Added to the list of key
indicators are trends in carbon emissions, sulfur and nitrogen
emissions, and coral reefs.
Treaties and Models: Issues in the International Management of
Climate Change (OTA-BP-ENV-128), Off. Technol. Assess.
(Washington, D.C.), 28 pp., June 1994, $2.75. Order from New
Orders, Superintendent of Documents, POB 371954, Pittsburgh PA
15250 (tel: 202-783-3238; fax: 202-512-2250).
(See news notes.) A background paper based on an April 1993
workshop on computer models, environmental policy and
international negotiations. Contains the broad conclusion that
delaying the implementation of emission controls 10-20 years will
have little effect on atmospheric concentrations, and could
greatly reduce the associated costs. However, an accompanying
two-page "report brief" qualifies this conclusion
somewhat, saying that this would be true if at the end of this
period the major countries rapidly freeze emissions, at a rate
that may be technologically difficult. Long political delays in
reaching a broad international agreement to limit emissions could
require serious political activity now.
Priorities for the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Natl.
Res. Council--Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change
(O.R. Young, Chair), 36 pp., 1994. Natl. Academy Press, 2101
Constitution Ave. NW, Washington DC 20418 (800-624-6242 or
Responds to expanding the scope of the U.S. Global Change
Research Program to emphasize policy-relevant knowledge based on
human-environment interactions. Five priorities were identified
by the committee: understanding land use change; improving policy
analysis; designing policy instruments and institutions to
address energy-related environmental problems; assessing impacts,
vulnerability and adaptation; understanding population dynamics.
A problem-focused approach will ensure that techniques of
knowledge integration will be put to practical test.
Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC): Initial Review of
Objectives and Scientific Issues, (WCRP-83), SPARC Sci.
Steering Group, 39 pp., Dec. 1993. Available from SPARC Off.,
CNRS, Serv. d'Aéronomie, BP 3, 91371 Verriéres-le-Buisson,
France (fax: +33 1 6920 2999).
Discusses a program for coordinated observation, modeling and
analysis to understand the effects of stratospheric changes on
climate, including how physical and chemical mechanisms interact
with the biosphere, for instance through UV-B radiation.
following four-page Environmental Indicator Bulletins are part of
a series that profile the state of Canada's environment and
measure progress toward sustainable development. They are updated
yearly; technical supplements are available. Request (no charge)
from State of the Environ. Reporting Prog., Environ. Canada,
Ottawa ON K1A 0H3, Can.
Climate Change, May 1994.
Energy Consumption, Mar. 1994.
Urban Air Quality, Feb. 1994.
Climate Timebomb, 1994, $15.20/£10. Greenpeace, 1436 U St.
NW, Washington DC 20009 (202-462-1177); Greenpeace Intl.,
Keizergracht 176, 1016 DW Amsterdam, Neth.
Describes a database that catalogs 500 climate impacts since
1990, gathered from scientific and news reports to show evidence
of climate change.
Detection of Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change (DOE Res.
Summary, No. 29), B.D. Santer (Livermore Lab., Berkeley, Calif.),
4 pp., Apr. 1994. Available through Carbon Dioxide Info. Analysis
Ctr. (CDIAC), U.S. Dept. Energy, Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge
TN 37831 (615-574-0390).
One of a series of synopses of DOE-sponsored research written
for the nonspecialist. Experiments with general circulation
models in Europe and the U.S. suggest that temperature patterns
may provide the most effective "fingerprint" for
detecting greenhouse warming.
Threat of Global Climate Change--What Can New Yorkers Do?
J.K. Healy, A.M. McCarthy et al., 35 pp., Jan. 1994. Single
copies free from NYS Bar Assoc., One Elk St., Albany NY 12207.
Prepared by the Environmental Law Section. A variety of
measures can be implemented at state and local levels, many of
which would have other environmental and economic benefits. Some
of these are: update the New York Energy Conservation Code;
assign energy managers to public buildings; encourage development
of energy efficient products; protect solar access; increase tree
planting in public spaces; prohibit purchase of products raised
or developed on land reclaimed from tropical rainforests;
prohibit burning leaves and trash; forbid prohibition of the use
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations