February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 7, JULY 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... OF GENERAL INTEREST: CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE
Temperature Range for a Doubled Carbon Dioxide Concentration
Experiment: Analysis of Possible Physical Mechanisms," M.
Verdecchia (Dip. Fisica, Univ. Studi, L'Aquila, Italy), G.
Visconti et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(14),
1527-1530, July 1, 1994.
Climate simulations for a doubling of CO2 over the European
region show that soil moisture is an important influence on
diurnal temperature range, and illustrate the radiative and cloud
mechanisms involved. Results are consistent with early
observations of a negative correlation between changes in
precipitation and in diurnal temperature range.
and Hemispheric Temperature Trends: Uncertainties Related to
Inadequate Spatial Sampling," T.R. Karl (NESDIS-NOAA, Fed.
Bldg., Asheville NC 28801), R.W. Knight, J.R. Christy, J.
Clim., 7(7), 1144-1163, July 1994.
Investigates the spatial sampling error inherent in long-term
(50-100 year) and short-term (10-30 year) trends, using climatic
data and output of doubled-CO2 GCM simulations. Results imply
that the errors associated with century-scale trends of
temperature are probably an order of magnitude smaller than the
observed global warming of about 0.5°C over the past hundred
years. Errors in decadal trends are larger, and positive biases
are likely during the 1980s due to oversampling of the Northern
and Carbon Co-limitation of Marine Phytoplankton," F.M.M.
Morel (Parsons Lab., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139),
J.R. Reinfelder et al., Nature, 369(6483), 740-742,
June 30, 1994.
Experiments with a marine diatom show, as has already been
postulated for iron, that zinc may limit ocean production and
influence the global carbon cycle. Results may also be important
for the interpretation of Ù13C measurements in seawater and
related items in ibid.:
"Outlook Becoming Hazier," T.M.L. Wigley (Univ.
Corp. Atmos. Res., POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 709-710.
Discusses from a technical standpoint the implications of the
following paper, which indicate the complicated interaction
between the radiative effects of aerosols and greenhouse gases.
It may take longer than we thought to reduce uncertainties in
"Response of the Climate System to Atmospheric Aerosols
and Greenhouse Gases," K.E. Taylor, J.E. Penner (Global
Clim. Res. Div., Lawrence Livermore Natl. Lab., POB 808,
Livermore CA 94551), 734-737. Climate simulations of these two
types of radiative forcing indicate that for equal magnitudes of
forcing, the temperature response is greater for CO2 than for
aerosols. The global response to aerosol forcing has a different
pattern than the forcing itself. Accurate climate predictions
require separate treatment of these effects.
of Climate Regulation in a Geophysiological Model," J.E.
Lovelock (Coombe Mill, St. Giles on the Heath, Launceston PL15
9RY, UK), L.R. Kump, ibid., 732-734.
Uses a simple model of the feedback between climate and marine
algae (through dimethyl sulfide emissions) and plants on land
(through fixation of CO2). In glacial conditions, both provide
negative feedbacks; at present temperatures, algae lose their
strong climatic influence; and at global temperatures above
20°C, both ecosystems are in positive feedback. The latter
conditions have existed in the past, so there must be other
climate-regulating mechanisms that operate is such a warm regime.
on the recent estimate of sea-level rise by Sahagian et al. in
relation to IPCC estimates, Nature, 369(6482),
615-616, June 23, 1994.
in Nature, 369(6481), June 16, 1994:
"Drowned Trees Record Dry Spells," F.A.
Street-Perrott (Environ. Change Unit, Mansfield Rd., Oxford OX1
3TB, UK), 518. Comments on the following paper, which provides
new evidence for the global significance of the Medieval Warm
Period and demonstrates the importance of hydrological
fluctuations in climate change in addition to more commonly
studied temperature variations.
and Persistent Drought in California and Patagonia During
Mediaeval Time," S. Stine (Dept. Geog. & Environ.
Studies, California State University, Hayward CA 94542), 546-549.
Study of relict tree stumps in present-day lakes, marshes and
streams suggests that California's Sierra Nevada experienced
century-long drought periods prior to AD~1350, with runoff much
lower than during any of the persistent droughts of the last 140
years. If these droughts were associated with the Medieval Warm
Epoch, they could recur under future warming.
issue: "The Medieval Warm Period," M.K. Hughes
(Lab. Tree Ring Res., Univ. Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.), H.F. Diaz,
Eds., Clim. Change, 26(2-3), Mar. 1994. A hardbound
edition is available from Kluwer Acad. Pub., POB 322, 300 AH
Dordrecht, Neth.; or POB 358, Accord Sta., Hingham MA 02018.
Contains 13 papers that resulted from a workshop (Tucson,
Ariz., Nov. 1991). Topics include glacial and tree-ring evidence;
evidence from regions of North and South America, Europe and
China; solar activity; and ENSO-sensitive records.
Cover and Climate," J. Cohen (Dept. Geol. Sci., Columbia
Univ., New York, N.Y.), Weather, 49(5), 150-156,
A review with recent references, emphasizing quantification of
snow cover change under greenhouse warming.
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Index of Abbreviations