February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 7, JULY 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... AEROSOLS, SULFUR, CLOUDS AND CLIMATE
of Variations in Supersaturation on the Formation of Cloud
Condensation Nuclei," Y.J. Kaufman (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt
MD 20771), D. Tanré, Nature, 369(6475), 45-48, May
Shows that natural variability of even low average
supersaturations allows particles as small as 0.015 µm to grow
into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). This result suggests that
anthropogenic sulfur emission has a larger impact on climate than
estimated recently by Langner et al.
of Fogs, Clouds and Aerosols," B.C. Faust (Duke Univ.,
Durham NC 27706), Environ. Sci. Technol., 28(5),
217A-222A, May 1994.
Reviews reactions involving H2O2, the OH radical, the
superoxide radical, and Fe(III). These reactions may occur in and
on stratospheric cloud and aerosol particles, as well as in cloud
and fog drops, and may influence stratospheric chemical cycles.
Cycling of Sulfur in Surface Seawater of the Northeast
Pacific," T.S. Bates (PMEL, NOAA, 7600 Sand Pt. Way NE,
Seattle WA 98115), R.P. Kiene et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(C4),
7835-7843, Apr. 15, 1994.
Data imply that, because air-sea exchange is only a minor sink
in the seawater sulfur cycle, there is the potential for much
higher dimethyl sulfide emissions under different climatic
from Tellus, 46B(2), Apr. 1994:
"The Effect of Anthropogenic Sulfate Aerosols on Marine
Cloud Droplet Concentrations," T. Novakov (Energy &
Environ. Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley
CA 94720), C. Rivera-Carpio et al., 132-141. The empirically
derived sensitivities of the droplet number concentrations to
non-seasalt SO42- mass concentrations are much lower than those
assumed in recent assessments of the effect of anthropogenic
sulfate aerosols on cloud albedo.
"Sea-Salt Particles in the Upper Tropical
Troposphere," M. Ikegami (Meteor. Res. Inst., Tsukuba,
Ibaraki 305, Japan), K. Okada et al., 142-151. Aircraft
observations show that sea-salt particles play an important role
in the heterogeneous formation of sulfuric acid particles in the
tropical free troposphere.
and Minimizing Uncertainty of Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic
Aerosols," J.E. Penner (Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab., POB
808, Livermore CA 94550), R.J. Charlson et al., Bull. Amer.
Meteor. Soc., 75(3), 375-400, Mar. 1994. (See GCCD,
p. 3, Mar. 1994)
in Global Marine Cloudiness and Anthropogenic Sulfur," F.
Parungo (NOAA/ERL, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.F. Boatman
et al., J. Clim., 7(3), 434-440, Mar. 1994. (See GCCD,
p. 6, Mar. 1994)
in Elemental Concentrations of Fine Particles at Remote Sites in
the United States of America," R.A. Eldred (Crooker Nuclear
Lab., Univ. Calif., Davis CA 95616), T.A. Cahill, Atmos.
Environ., 28(5), 1009-1019, Mar. 1994.
Using stable sampling and analytical protocols, determined
statistically significant historical trends as small as 1-2% per
year for sites with 10-year records.
the Susceptibility of Cloud Albedo to Changes in Droplet
Concentration with the Advanced Very High Resolution
Radiometer," S. Platnick (NASA-Goddard, Code 913, Greenbelt
MD 20771), S. Twomey, J. Appl. Meteor., 33(3),
334-347, Mar. 1994.
The susceptibility for marine stratus clouds varied by about
two orders of magnitude. Climate studies that include marine
stratus albedo modification from anthropogenic cloud condensation
nuclei are incomplete without accounting for existing
of Anthropogenic Sulphate Aerosol Forcing Using Radiative
Perturbation Theory," M.A. Box (Sch. Phys., Univ. New S.
Wales, Kensington NSW 2033, Australia), T. Trautmann, Tellus, 46B(1),
33-39, Feb. 1994.
Used a detailed sulfate optical model and radiative
perturbation theory to calculate climate forcing. Results are
similar to previous calculations by Charlson et al., if humidity
effects are taken into account.
Record of Biogenic Sulfur in a South Greenland Ice Core
(20D)," (see Paleoclimatology section).
Size Distributions in the Cloudy Atmospheric Boundary Layer of
the North Atlantic Ocean," D.A. Hegg (Dept. Atmos. Sci.,
Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), R.J. Ferek, P.V.
Hobbs, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D5), 8841-8846, May 20,
Measurements suggest that particle nucleation of acid sulfate
occurs, but is neither spatially nor temporally homogeneous.
First Greenland Ice Core Record of Methanesulfonate [MSA] and
Sulfate over a Full Glacial Cycle," (see Paleoclimatology
from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D4), Apr. 20, 1994:
"Cloud Droplet Number Studies with a Counterflow Virtual
Impactor," T.L. Anderson (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ.
Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), D.S. Covert, R.J. Charlson,
8249-8256. Discusses some of the difficulties in quantifying the
cloud-mediated climatic effect of aerosol perturbations from
either natural or anthropogenic emissions.
"Measurements of Chloride Depletion and Sulfur Enrichment
in Individual Sea-Salt Particles Collected from the Remote Marine
Boundary Layer," L.M. McInnes (Dept. Chem., Univ.
Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), D.S. Covert et al.,
Between Seasonal Variation in Satellite-Derived Cloud Optical
Depth and Boundary Layer CCN Concentrations at a Mid-Latitude
Southern Hemisphere Station," R. Boers (CSIRO/DAR,
Aspendale, Victoria 3195, Australia), G.P. Ayers, J.L. Gras, Tellus, 46B(2),
123-131, Apr. 1994.
from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D2), Feb. 20, 1994:
"Non-Sea-Salt Sulfate and Methanesulfonate at American
Samoa," D.L. Savoie (Rosenstiel Sch. Mar. & Atmos. Sci.,
Univ. Miami, Miami FL 33149), J.M. Prospero et al., 3587-3596.
"Aqueous Reaction Kinetics of Ozone and Dimethylsulfide
and Its Atmospheric Implications," Y.-N. Lee (Dept. Appl
Sci., Brookhaven Natl. Lab., Upton NY 11973), X. Zhou, 3597-3605.
and MSA in the Air and Snow on the Greenland Ice Sheet,"
J.-L. Jaffrezo, C.I. Davidson (Dept. Civ. Eng., Carnegie Mellon
Univ., Pittsburgh PA 15213) et al., ibid., 99(D1),
1241-1253, Jan. 20, 1994.
and reply on "A Model Study of the Formation of Cloud
Condensation Nuclei in Remote Marine Areas," ibid., 98(D11),
20,813-20,816, Nov. 20, 1993.
Sulfur Chemistry and Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN)
Concentrations over the Northeastern Pacific Coast," H.
Berresheim (Sch. Earth & Atmos. Sci., Georgia Inst. Technol.,
Atlanta GA 30332), F.L. Eisele et al., ibid., 98 (D7),
12,701-12,711, July 20, 1993.
Condensation Nuclei/Climate System: Relevant Size-Resolved
Measurements of the Chemical and Physical Properties of
Atmospheric Aerosol Particles," P.K. Quinn (PMEL, NOAA, 7600
Sand Pt. Way NE, Seattle WA 98115), D.S. Covert et al., ibid., 98(D6),
10,411-10,427, June 20, 1993.
of Cloudiness as a Function of Temperature for Use in a
Thermodynamic Model," R. Garduño (Ctr. Ciencias Atmós.,
UNAM, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04510 México, D.F. México), J.
Adem, World Resour. Rev., 5(2), 246-253, June 1993.
Used the Adem thermodynamic model to compute climate change due
to atmospheric CO2 increase.
"A Model Study of the Formation of Cloud Condensation Nuclei
in Remote Marine Areas," J. Geophys. Res., 98(D4),
7127-7128, Apr. 20, 1993.
Formation from DMS Oxidation Without SO2 Acting as an
Intermediate," X. Lin (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO
80303), W.L. Chameides, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(7),
579-582, Apr. 9, 1993.
Influence of Light Intensity on Dimethylsulfide Production by a
Marine Diatom," Y.-A. Vetter (Coll. Marine Stud., Univ.
Delaware, Lewes DE 19958), J.H. Sharp, Limnol. Oceanog., 38(2),
419-425, Mar. 1993.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations