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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d94jun60

"The Volcanic Signal in Goddard Institute for Space Studies Three-Dimensional Model Simulations," A. Robock (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), Y. Liu, J. Clim., 7(1), 44-55, Jan. 1994.

Combined simulations of several eruptions show that global average cooling lasted for more than four years, but precipitation decrease abated after three years.

Item #d94jun61

"GCM Simulations of Volcanic Aerosol Forcing. Part I: Climate Changes Induced by Steady-State Perturbations," J.B. Pollack (NASA-Ames, Moffet Field CA 94035), D. Rind et al., ibid., 6(9), 1719-1742, Sep. 1993.

Compares climate response to extended volcanic aerosol forcing with three other cases: present climate without volcano aerosols, doubled CO2, and one with boundary conditions of the last ice age. In every case, the change in average surface air temperature is about 5K. Significant cooling of the troposphere and surface can occur at times of closely spaced, multiple, sulfur-rich eruptions that span time scales of decades to centuries.

Item #d94jun62

"Stratospheric Aerosols and Greenhouse Warming of the Lower Troposphere," I.L. Karol (Main Geophys. Observ.), V.A. Frol'kis, Izvestiya, Atmos. & Ocean. Phys., 28(5), 351-357, Eng. ed. of Dec. 1992.

Calculations show that millions of tons of sulfate and hundreds of thousands of tons of soot per year must flow into the stratosphere to compensate for greenhouse warming at the surface during the last ten years.

Item #d94jun63

"Anticipated Global Anthropogenic Climate Changes Attributable to the Joint Effect of Carbonic Gas and Carbonyl Sulfide," A.S. Kabanov (Inst. Exper. Meteor.), ibid., 28(3), 173-177, Eng. ed. of Oct. 1992.

Calculates net future warming due to the compensating effects of CO2 and stratospheric sulfate aerosols.


Item #d94jun64

"Multi-Wavelength Profiles of Aerosol Backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992," R.L. McKenzie (NIWA-Atmos., Lauder, Central Otago, N.Z.), J.M. Rosen et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(9), 789-792, May 1, 1994.

Item #d94jun65

"SAGE II Observations of a Previously Unreported Stratospheric Volcanic Aerosol Cloud in the Northern Polar Summer of 1990," G.K. Yue (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), R.E. Veiga, P.-H. Wang, ibid., 21(6), 429-432, Mar. 15, 1994.

Item #d94jun66

"Radiatively Forced Dispersion of the Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Cloud and Induced Temperature Perturbations in the Stratosphere During the First Few Months Following the Eruption," R.E. Young (NASA-Ames, Moffet Field CA 94035), H. Houben, O.B. Toon, ibid., 21(5), 369-372, Mar. 1, 1994.

Item #d94jun67

"Pinatubo Volcanic Aerosols Observed by Lidar at Wakkanai, Japan," T. Shibata (Solar Terr. Environ. Lab., Nagoya Univ., Nagoya 464-01, Japan), T. Itabe et al., ibid., 21(3), 197-200, Feb. 1, 1994.

Item #d94jun68

"Stratospheric Aerosol Acidity, Density, and Refractive Index Deduced from SAGE II and NMC Temperature Data," G.K. Yue (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), L.R. Poole et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D2), 3727-3738, Feb. 20, 1994.

Item #d94jun69

"Changes in Solar Radiation Fluxes After the Pinatubo Eruption," M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach (Inst. Med. Phys., Univ. Innsbruck, Muellerstr. 44, A-6020, Innsbruck, Austria), Tellus, 46B(1), 76-78, Feb. 1994. Measured UV-B, UV-A and total global fluxes.

Item #d94jun70

"Observations of the Loss of Stratospheric NO2 Following Volcanic Eruptions," M.T. Coffey (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), W.G. Mankin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(24), 2873-2876, Dec. 23, 1993.

Item #d94jun71

Three items from J. Geophys. Res., 98(D12), Dec. 20, 1993:

"Pinatubo and Pre-Pinatubo Optical-Depth Spectra: Mauna Loa Measurements, Comparisons, Inferred Particle Size Distributions, Radiative Effects, and Relationship to Lidar Data," P.B. Russell (MS-245-5, NASA-Ames, Moffet Field CA 94035), J.M. Livingston et al., 22,969-22,985. Radiative forcing due to the eruption is comparable in magnitude but opposite in sign to that of the increase in greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution.

"Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depths, 1850-1990," M. Sato (NASA Goddard Inst. Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), J.E. Hansen et al., 22,987-22,994. Describes a data set available for climate research.

"Monitoring the Evolution of 1991 Pinatubo Aerosols over Beijing by Combining Twilight Observations with Lidar Detection," B. Wu (Inst. Atmos. Phys., Chinese Acad. Sci., Beijing 100029, China), D. Lu, 22,995-23,001.

Item #d94jun72

"The Impact of the Eruptions of Mount Pinatubo and Cerro Hudson on Antarctic Aerosol Levels During the 1991 Austral Spring," M.C. Pitts (Sci. Applic. Intl. Corp., One Enterprise Pkwy., S. 250, Hampton VA 23666), L.W. Thomason, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(22), 2451-2454, Nov. 19, 1993.

Item #d94jun73

"Properties and Decay of Stratospheric Aerosols in the Arctic Following the 1991 Eruptions of Mount Pinatubo," R.S. Stone (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), J.R. Key, E.G. Dutton, ibid., 20(21), 2359-2362, Nov. 5, 1993.

Item #d94jun74

"Estimation of Pinatubo Aerosol Size Distribution and Its Influence on Spectral Optical Thickness Measurements in Canada," M. Stettler (Inst. Troposphärenforschung, Permoser Str. 15, 04303 Leipzig, Ger.), W. Von Hoyningen-Huene, Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 66(4), 347-354, Nov. 1993.

Item #d94jun75

"The Poleward Dispersal of Mount Pinatubo Volcanic Aerosol," C.R. Trepte (Sci. Applic. Intl. Corp., One Enterprise Pkwy., S. 250, Hampton VA 23666), R.E. Veiga, M.P. McCormick, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D10), 18,563-18,573, Oct. 20, 1993.

Item #d94jun76

"Lidar Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosols During the SAGA 3 Expedition," Y.G. Kaufman (Lab. Phys. Clim., Inst. Exper. Meteor., Obninsk, Russia), S.S. Khmelevtsov, T.E. DeFoor, ibid., 98(D9), 16,909-16,913, Sep. 20, 1993.

Item #d94jun77

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(18), Sep. 15, 1993:

"1. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of the Optical Thickness of the Pinatubo Aerosol Cloud in the Northern Hemisphere from a Network of Ship-Borne and Stationary Lidars," S.I. Avdyushin (Federov Inst. Appl. Geophys., Rostokinskaya 9, 129226, Moscow, Russia), G.F. Tulinov et al., 1963-1966.

"2. Morphology and Dynamics of the Pinatubo Aerosol Layer in the Northern Hemisphere as Detected from a Ship-Borne Lidar," B. Nardi (Space Phys. Res. Lab., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), M.-L. Chanin et al., 1967-1970.

Item #d94jun78

"Satellite Detection of Volcanic Sulphuric Acid Aerosol," A.J. Baran (U.K. Meteor. Off., Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SZ, UK), J.S. Foot, P.C. Dibben, ibid., 20(17), 1799-1801, Sep. 3, 1993.

Item #d94jun79

"Balloonborne Measurements of Pinatubo Aerosol During 1991 and 1992 at 41°N: Vertical Profiles, Size Distribution, and Volatility," T. Deshler (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), B.J. Johnson, W.R. Rozier, ibid., 20(14), 1435-1438, July 23, 1993.

Item #d94jun80

Two items from ibid., 20(12), June 18, 1993:

"Comparing Stratospheric Aerosols from El Chichón and Mount Pinatubo Using AVHRR Data," A.E. Strong (NOAA/NESDIS, Rm. 711, WWB, Washington DC 20233), L.L. Stowe, 1183-1186.

"On the Relationship Between Stratospheric Aerosols and Nitrogen Dioxide," M.J. Mills (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), A.O. Langford et al., 1187-1190.

Item #d94jun81

"Volcanic Aerosol Layers Observed by Lidar at South Pole, September 1991-June 1992," M. Cacciani (Univ. Sapienza, 00185 Rome, Italy), P. Di Girolamo et al., ibid., 20(9), 807-810, May 5, 1993.

Item #d94jun82

"One-Year Observations of Mount-Pinatubo Aerosol with an Advanced Raman Lidar over Germany at 53.5°N," A. Ansmann (Inst. Troposphärenforschung, Permoserstr. 15, 0-7050 Leipzig, Ger.), U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, ibid., 20(8), 711-714, Apr. 23, 1993.

Item #d94jun83

"Stratospheric Aerosol Change in the Early Stage of Volcanic Disturbance by the Pinatubo Eruption Observed over Tsukuba, Japan," S. Hayashida (Natl. Inst. Environ. Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), Y. Sasano, ibid., 20(7), 575-578, Apr. 9, 1993.

Item #d94jun84

"Modified HNO3 Seasonality in Volcanic Layers of a Polar Ice Core: Snow-Pack Effect or Photochemical Perturbation?" P. Laj (Osserv. Geofis., Univ. Modena, Via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena, Italy), J.M. Palais et al., J. Atmos. Chem., 16(3), 219-230, Apr. 1993.

Item #d94jun85

"A Global Three-Dimensional Model of the Stratospheric Sulfuric Acid Layer," A. Golombek (Ctr. Global Change Sci., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), R.G. Prinn, ibid., 16(2), 179-199, Feb. 1993.

Item #d94jun86

"Evidence for Upper Stratospheric Aerosols from Balloon-Borne Mass Spectrometers," A. Krieger (M. Planck Inst. Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 6900 Heidelberg, Ger.), F. Arnold, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(23), 2301-2304, Dec. 2, 1992. Provides evidence for the presence of aerosols at heights well above the H2SO4/H2O aerosol layer.

Item #d94jun87

"Diminished Effects of El Chichón on Stratospheric Aerosols, Early 1984 to Late 1986," K.G. Snetsinger (NASA-Ames, Moffet Field CA 94035), R.F. Pueschel et al., Atmos. Environ., 26A(16), 2947-2951, Nov. 1992.

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