February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1994
- OF GENERAL INTEREST: ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
Repair and Resistance to Solar UV-B in Amphibian Eggs: A Link to
Population Declines?" A.R. Blaustein (Dept. Zool., Oregon
State Univ., Corvallis OR 97331), P.L. Hoffman et al., Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci., 91(5), 1791-1795, Mar. 1994.
Investigates and finds support for the hypothesis that
differential sensitivity to increasing UV radiation accounts for
declines being observed in some amphibian species and not others.
Levels of the enzyme photolyase, which repairs DNA damage by UV
radiation, were found to vary more than 80-fold among 10 species
studied in the Oregon Cascade Mountains, and were related to
whether species are showing population declines.
related items in J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 86(2), Jan.
"Sunscreens and Melanoma: Implications for
Prevention," H.K. Koh (Dept. Dermatol., Boston Univ. Med.
Ctr., 88 E. Newton St., Boston MA 02118), R.A. Lew, 78-79.
Editorial giving recommendations based on the following article,
which are especially timely in view of mounting concerns over
ozone depletion and its effect on UV-B radiation.
"Effect of Sunscreens on UV Radiation-Induced Enhancement
of Melanoma Growth in Mice," P. Wolf, C.K. Donawho, M.L.
Kripke (Dept. Immunol.--178, Anderson Cancer Ctr., Univ. Texas,
Houston TX 77030), 99-105. Experiments show that the application
of sunscreens to mice protected them against sunburn but did not
significantly alter melanoma tumor growth. Sunscreen use by
humans could encourage longer exposures to sunlight, increasing
the risk of melanoma. Further research on the effects of
sunscreen is needed.
Transmission of Ultraviolet Radiation to the Surface Due to
Stratospheric Scattering," R. Davies (Dept. Atmos. Sci.,
McGill Univ., Montreal PQ H3A 2K6, Can.), J. Geophys. Res., 98(D4),
7251-7253, Apr. 20, 1993.
Examines the mechanism by which aerosol scattering can
increase UV radiation reaching the surface. During the combined
presence of an ozone hole and stratospheric aerosols, as from a
volcanic eruption, this mechanism leads to the possibility that
UV radiation reaching the surface at high latitudes can exceed
the tropical maximum at sufficiently short wavelengths.
Sunlight Reaching the Earth's Surface: A Review of Recent
Research," J.E. Frederick (Dept. Geophys. Sci., Univ.
Chicago, 5734 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago IL 60637), Photochem.
Photobiol., 57(1), 175-178, Jan. 1993.
Reviews 1990-1992 publications. In middle latitudes,
astronomical factors produce variations in UV that far exceed any
changes predicted as a consequence of the decline in column ozone
since 1970. In contrast, the large springtime depletion in
Antarctica has lead to UV irradiances substantially larger than
existed there prior to the last decade.
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