February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 5, MAY 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... EARTH RADIATION BUDGET
Specialized papers on this topic appear in a separate section
in this issue.
Dependence of Outgoing Longwave Radiation [OLR] on Sea Surface
Temperature and Moisture," A. Raval (GFDL, POB 308,
Princeton NJ 08542), A.H. Oort, V. Ramaswamy, J. Clim., 7(5),
807-821, May 1994.
Suggests that the observed dependence (based on four years of
ERBE data) be a minimum performance standard for climate models.
Illustrates this approach using GCM output.
of Comparison for Clear-Sky Radiative Fluxes from General
Circulation Models with Earth Radiation Budget Experiment
Data," M.H. Zhang (Inst. Terr. Atmos., State Univ. of New
York, Stoney Brook NY 11794), R.D. Cess et al., J. Geophys.
Res., 99(D3), 5515-5523, Mar. 20, 1994.
Discusses problems associated with the available methods for
clear-sky radiative flux computations in GCMs; proposes a new
approach based on statistical relationships derived from ERBE
Greenhouse Species in Clouds, Fogs and Aerosols," N.A.
Marley, J.S. Gaffney (Bldg. 203, Argonne Natl. Lab., Argonne IL
60439), M.M. Cunningham, Environ. Sci. Technol., 27(13),
2864-2869, Dec. 1993.
Describes measurements of water-soluble infrared absorbers
that can contribute to the long-wave radiation forcing of clouds,
fogs and aerosols. Discusses relative effects on radiative
Investigation of the Global Solar Radiative Forcing Due to
Changes in Cloud Liquid Water Path [LWP]," V. Ramaswamy
(Atmos. Sci. Prog., Princeton Univ., Princeton NJ 08542), J.
Geophys. Res., 98(D9), 16,703-16,712, Sep. 20, 1993.
Examines the significant space-time dependence of forcing
associated with the change in the LWP of low clouds due to
variations in insolation, solar zenith angle and surface albedo.
Although a specific globally uniform LWP increase can yield a
global, annual mean radiative forcing that is opposite to but of
the same magnitude as that for CO2 increases, such a compensation
in the forcing cannot be expected to be uniform with latitude or
Implications of Observed Changes in Ozone Vertical Distributions
at Middle and High Latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere,"
W.-C. Wang (Atmos. Sci. Res. Ctr., 100 Fuller Rd., Albany NY
12205), Y.-C. Zhuang, R.D. Bojkov, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(15),
1567-1570, Aug. 6, 1993.
Examination of soundings over the past few decades suggests
that changes in the vertical distribution of ozone could have
produced a substantial warming in the middle latitude troposphere
comparable to the influence of other greenhouse gases.
Radiation Parameterizations for the Minor CO2 Bands and for
Several CFC Bands in the Window Region," D.P. Kratz
(Lockheed Co., 144 Research Dr., Hampton VA 23666), M.-D. Chou,
M.-H. Yan, J. Clim., 6(7), 1269-1281, July 1993.
Presents fast, accurate parameterizations and applies them to
the IPCC low emissions "B" scenario using a zonally
averaged multilayer energy balance model. Collectively, the minor
absorption bands account for 40-45% of the total surface
of Observed Cloud Radiative Forcing: A Zonal and Global
Perspective," B.-J. Sohn, F. R. Robertson (NASA Marshall
Space Flight Ctr., Huntsville AL 35812), Bull. Amer. Meteor.
Soc., 74(6), 997-1006, June 1993.
Compares three methods for estimating the annual, global mean
of cloud radiative forcing, using the same data source and
analysis period. Differences in published values of net
radiative forcing are mainly due to different data sources and
analysis periods, but both longwave and shortwave forcing
components show more dependence on the method used.
in J. Clim., 6(5), May 1993:
"Observations of Seasonal Variations in Atmospheric
Greenhouse Trapping and Its Enhancement at High Sea Surface
Temperature," R. Hallberg (Sch. Oceanog., Univ. Washington,
Seattle WA 98195), A.K. Inamdar, 920-931. Greenhouse trapping is
larger in winter than in summer over temperate oceans, but the
opposite is true in the tropics. At sea surface temperatures
above about 298 K a "super" greenhouse effect occurs.
Investigates the contributing processes.
"Uncertainties in Climatological Tropical Humidity
Profiles: Some Implications for Estimating the Greenhouse
Effect," D.S. Gutzler (Atmos. & Environ. Res. Inc., 840
Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA 02139), 978-982. Calculations show
that the radiance uncertainty due to uncertainty in humidity
measurements is comparable in magnitude to the purely radiative
response of the tropical upper atmosphere to doubling CO2.
Nimbus Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Experiment: 1975 to
1992," H.L. Kyle (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), J.R.
Hickey et al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74(5),
815-830, May 1993.
A lengthy review of successes and lessons learned during the
Nimbus ERB studies, and the compatibility of Nimbus and ERBE
Dioxide and Climate: The Impact of Cloud Parameterization,"
C.A. Senior (Meteor. Office (H211), London Rd., Bracknell RG12
2SZ, UK), J.F.B. Mitchell, J. Clim., 6(3), 393-418,
Experiments with different parameterization schemes in the
Hadley Center model lead to an estimate of 2.1-2.8·C for
equilibrium response to doubled CO2.
Earth's Radiation Budget and Its Relation to Atmospheric
Hydrology. 3. Comparison of Observations over the Oceans with a
GCM," G.L. Stephens (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins CO
80523), D.A. Randall et al., J. Geophys. Res., 98(D3),
4931-4950, Mar. 20, 1993.
Experiments suggest that current GCMs simulate the
relationship between the radiation budget and moisture quite
well, but serious quantitative problems include simulation of
column vapor in the tropics and an excessive clear-sky greenhouse
effect in mid-latitudes.
Two-Parameter Approximation in Cloudiness Variability
Studies," O. Kärner (Inst. Atmos. Phys., Estonian Acad.
Sci., 20244, Toravere, Estonia), S. Keevallik, P. Post, Atmos.
Res., 27(4), 231-252, Feb. 1992.
Calculations show that cloud redistribution can have a
stronger effect on climate than, for instance, CO2-doubling.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations