February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1995
GENERAL INTEREST & POLICY
Warming: Economic Dimensions and Policy Responses, OECD,
1995, $53/DM87/FF220. From OECD.
Despite considerable uncertainty, policy actions may be
justified because they provide insurance against possible climate
damage. A first step is exploiting measures that reduce
greenhouse gases with only small output losses. Policies beyond
these are likely to work best through economic instruments such
as taxes or subsidies. The massive emission cuts that may be
necessary to stabilize climate will require the cooperation of
the non-industrial countries.
to Climatic Variability and Change, B. Smit, Ed., 53 pp.,
released 1995. Contact Dept. Geog., Univ. Guelph, Guelph ON N1G
2W1, Can. (519 824 4120). In English or French.
A report from the Task Force on Climate Adaptation (of the
Canadian Climate Program), established to examine this issue and
make proposals for appropriate action. Recommends that both the
private sector and all levels of government recognize the
inherent variability in climate and consider adopting adaptive
strategies. Governments also should, for example, promote
awareness of climate variability and change, and support and
undertake research. Canada should promote consideration of
adaptation in international organizations and bilateral
Voices on Climate Change-Policy Concerns and Potentials, S.
Silveira, Ed., 39 pp., 1994. Free of charge from SEI (Stockholm
Environ. Inst.), Info. Off., Box 2142, S-10314, Stockholm, Swed.
working papers from CSERGE:
Trees, People, the Missing Sink, and the Greenhouse Effect,
N. Adger, K. Brown, 30 pp., 1994, $9/£5.
Climatic Change, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Future
Climate and Response Strategies: The Implications for India,
P.G. Rao, M. Kelly et al., 63 pp., 1994, $9/£5.
Sustainable Development and Climate Change, R.K.
Turner, 14 pp., 1995, $4/£2.
The Precautionary Principle, Science, Politics and Ethics,
T. O'Riordan, A. Jordan, 28 pp., 1995, $4/£2.
Assessment of Environmental Refugees-Impending Crisis, Mar.
1995. A 15-page executive summary is available from Climate
Inst., 324 Fourth St. NE, Washington DC 20002 (tel: 202 547 0104;
fax: 22 547 0111).
Based on a two-year study that found that there are at least
25 million environmental refugees today, compared with 20 million
traditional refugees. That number may double by 2010, and may
grow more rapidly as global warming induces sea-level rise,
coastal flooding, drought, and agricultural dislocations.
Eventually 200 million people could be at risk of displacement.
the Frying Pan, Avoiding the Fire: Ending the Use of Methyl
Bromide, Apr. 1995. Contact Ozone Action, 1621 Connecticut
Ave. NW, Washington DC 20009 (202 265 6738).
Recommends taxing the use of this ozone-depleting pesticide,
then banning its use in the U.S. in 1997. Cites a UNEP report
that there are currently or soon to be available alternatives for
90% of methyl bromide's current uses.
of Environmental Trends-An Assessment of Twenty-One Key
Environmental Indicators in Nine Industrialized Countries over
the Past Two Decades, G. Alperovitz, T. Howard et al., 68
pp., Apr. 1995, $10. Available from Natl. Ctr. for Economic
Alternatives, 2040 S St. NW, Washington DC 20009 (tel: 202 986
1373; fax: 202 986 7938; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Used data from Canada, Denmark, France, W. Germany, Japan,
Netherlands, Sweden, the U.K., and the U.S. to develop an
aggregate gauge of environmental quality. Found there have been
few real environmental trend reversals within these countries;
generally the environment has declined, despite reforms made. The
trends would have been far worse if the economy had been
Climate and Coal, D.M.B. Adams, I.M. Smith, 30 pp., Jan.
1995, £95/£255 (non-member countries). A Perspectives report
from IEA Coal Res., Gemini House, 10-18 Putney Hill, London SW15
6AA, UK (tel: 44 0 181 780 2111; fax: 44 0 181 780 1746); U.S.
distributor: Ctr. Appl. Energy Res. (Attn: Theresa Wiley), 3572
Iron Works Pike, Lexington KY 40511 (tel: 606 257 0308; fax: 606
Reviews the formation of sulfate aerosols, which result in
part from coal combustion, and how they cool the atmosphere. The
effects are difficult to quantify, but need to be included in
model simulations of climate change. In the long term, their
cooling effect would be overwhelmed by the warming effect of
Gases-Perspectives on Coal, I. Smith, C. Nilsson, D. Adams,
41 pp., Aug. 1994, £95/£255 (non-member countries). From IEA
Coal Res. (see preceding entry).
Efficiency improvements could reduce CO2 emissions
from coal combustion, primarily from power generation, by 20-60%.
For greater reductions, capture technologies can be used, but at
considerable energy penalties and costs. There is still a lack of
data on various options for CO2 disposal.
Regulation, Jobs and U.S. Competitiveness: What's the Real Issue?,
R. Repetto, $16.45. Order from WRI (World Resour. Inst.)
Publications, POB 4852, Hampden Sta., Baltimore MD 21211 (800 822
0504 or 410 516 6963); in the U.K. and Europe: Earthscan Pubs.
Ltd., 120 Pentonville Rd., London N1 9JN (tel: 071 278 0433; fax:
071 278 1142).
Despite an improved economy, environmental progress is at a
standstill. Although many fear that the U.S. can't afford
stronger environmental protection, this study shows that
stringent environmental regulations do not result in lost jobs or
put the U.S. at a competitive disadvantage.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations