Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1995
Vehicle Pollution-Reduction Strategies Beyond 2010, 134 pp.,
1995 $29/DM47/FF155. From OECD.
Examines the impact that stricter, more comprehensive controls
could have on emissions over the next 30-40 years, including the
crucial importance of preventive approaches.
Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Australian Agriculture,
Apr. 1994, A$18, plus postage. From ABARE.
Used a disaggregated mathematical programming model of
broadacre agriculture, based on farm-level data, to simulate the
impact of policies on various states and regions. Estimated the
effects of an emissions tax on farm income, and other factors.
Tradable Emissions Permit Scheme, Mar. 1993, A$16. From
Examines how emission reductions could be distributed among
countries to minimize costs, what the costs might be, how to
determine the price of an emission permit for a given target, and
how to initially allocate permits to induce countries to
and Climate Policies: Europe, 1994, $147/$157 outside N.
Amer. Order from Cutter Info. Corp., 37 Broadway, Arlington MA
02174 (tel: 800 888 1816 or 617 641 5125; fax: 617 648 1950).
Draws on material that appeared in several Cutter news
periodicals to assess every aspect of the evolving European
energy and climate policies.
reports from CSERGE. Each costs $9/£5.
International Justice and Environmental Policy: Tradeable
Permits for Carbon Emissions, J. Pasek, W. Beckerman, 1994.
A Cost Benefit Analysis of Slowing Climate Change, D.
The United Kingdom and Global Warming Policy, D.
Maddison, D. Pearce, 1994.
Impact of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia: A
Survey of Recent Studies, Dec. 1994, US$6. Contact Australian
Bur. Industry Econ. Pubs., GPO Box 9839, Canberra, ACT 2601,
Australia (fax: 61 6 276 2484).
Estimates that the cost to the domestic economy of meeting the
emission reduction goal (82 million metric tons) would be at
least 0.4-1.6% of the annual real GDP. Some studies have proposed
a unilateral carbon tax, which would primarily affect
fossil-fuel-producing and electricity-generating industries, and
minerals and metals processing.
Potential Benefits and Detriments Associated with Large-Scale
Deployment of Genetically Engineered Woody Biomass Crops
(EPRI TR-104896), 1995. From EPRI.
Summarizes the issues associated with this topic. The report
was reviewed by numerous geneticists, environmentalists,
regulators, ethicists and others, and subsequently by workshop
participants who focused on identifying and addressing risks. A
systematic, interdisciplinary approach is needed.
CO2 Restrictions Is Energy Saved Energy Spared?
Dec. 1994. Summary of a study in the Dec. 1994 issue of IEA's ESTAP
News (pp. 1-2). Contact Tom Kram, ECN Policy Studies, Neth.
Energy Res. Foundation, POB 1, 1755 ZG Petten, Neth. (tel: 31
2246 4347; fax: 31 2246 3338).
Comparing MARKAL-MACRO with MARCAL results, found that the
"conservation rebound" is relatively small, but would
be magnified under CO2 emission restrictions.
It Together: Three Diverse Scenarios for CO2 Reduction
in Europe, Dec. 1994. Workshop results summarized in the Dec.
1994 ETSAP News, pp. 3-5 (see preceding entry).
The April 1994 workshop updated the evaluations of CO2
emission reduction technologies, and also evaluated these
technologies' merits in three scenarios. Numerous prospective
energy technologies were classified as competitive, synergetic or
indifferent to mainstream technologies (renewables, nuclear, and
fossil plus CO2 removal) for long term, extensive
reductions in CO2 emissions. Judging by their
substantial contribution to all three scenarios, the robust
technologies are biomass, electricity and other energy savings,
heat pumps, hydrogen energy, and materials recycling and
Impacts of Carbon Taxes: Overview (EPRI TR-104430-V1), 178
pp. Economic. . .Detailed Results (EPRI TR-104430-V2), 466
pp. Both published Nov. 1994; each costs $200 (EPRI U.S.
nonmembers)/$1000 (nonmembers elsewhere). From EPRI.
Examined the impact of three levels of taxes ($50, $100 and
$200 per metric ton of carbon by 2010) on a baseline projection
for the U.S. economy and its energy markets. Taxes at $100 and
$200 would be required to hold emissions to 1990 levels through
2010, with accompanying falls in real GDP.
for Screening Greenhouse Gas Reduction Options, Dec. 1994,
$100 (EPRI nonmembers). Available from Sci. & Technol. Mgmt.
(Attn. Jill Staehler), 2511 N. 124th St., S. 205, Brookfield WI
53005 (tel: 414 785 5940; fax: 414 785 5950).
Will help energy planners and environmental specialists
identify and evaluate greenhouse gas reduction, sequestration and
mitigation options at the corporate level.
to Manage Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Feb. 1995. Contact Barton
Sala, Ontario Hydro, 700 University Ave., 19th Fl., Toronto ON
M5G 1X6, Can. (tel: 416 592 3338; fax: 416 592 2178).
Describes the approach adopted on Feb. 15 that this provincial
utility will use to reduce the rate of emissions of greenhouse
gases per unit of useful energy supplied by 5% of 1990 levels in
the year 2000. Actions include improving supply-side and end-use
energy efficiency, developing renewable energy sources,
developing offset projects, and exploring market approaches
including emissions trading.
and the Environment, Roy. Comm. Environ. Pollut., Oct. 1994,
$43/£25.6. From HMSO.
This independent U.K. advisory body has made more than 100
recommendations for a transport policy that would curb traffic
and cut CO2 emissions from the transport sector by 20%
over the next 25 years. Fuel efficiency of new cars should be
improved by 40%; excise taxes should be lowered on fuel efficient
cars and raised on less efficient vehicles.
Climate Resolution: A Guide to Local Authority Action to Take the
Heat Off the Planet, 100 pp., 1994, $18 (summary report
available at no charge). Contact Friends of the Earth-U.K., 26-28
Underwood St., London N1 7JQ, U.K. (tel: 44 71 490 1555; fax: 44
71 490 0881).
Urges local authorities to reduce CO2 emissions by
30% by 2005.
Dioxide Reduction Options for Ontario: A Discussion Paper,
1994. Contact CIELAP (Canadian Inst. for Environ. Law &
Policy), 517 College St., S. 400, Toronto ON M6G 4A2, Can. (tel:
416 923 3529; fax: 416 923 5949).
Prepared after surveying business and political leaders'
support for measures to reduce CO2 emissions. This
report is the first step of a proposed multi-stakeholder
collaborative process, sponsored by CIELAP.
Global Warming: Possible Rules, Regulations and Administrative
Arrangements for a Global Market in CO2 Emission
Entitlements and Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions: The
Tradeable Permit System, both Jan. 1995. Available at
no charge from Frank Joshua, UNCTAD (U.N. Conf. on Trade &
Develop.), Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switz. (tel: 41 22
907 5835; fax: 41 22 907 0045).
The first report outlines operation of a trading system; the
second synthesizes the ideas, findings and conclusions of two
years of studies. For example, emissions trading among the US,
the EU and Japan would require stabilizing emissions at 1990
levels by 2000, with permits issued at current levels of
emissions. As these countries reduce emissions, they could sell
accumulated credits to other countries.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations