February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1995
OF GENERAL INTEREST: TREND ANALYSIS
"Increase in Lower Stratospheric Water Vapour at a
Mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere Site from 1981 to 1994,"
S.J. Oltmans (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), D.J.
Hofmann, Nature, 374(6518), 146-149, Mar. 9, 1995.
Measurements show a significant increase in water-vapor
concentration in the lower stratosphere over the period, larger
than might be expected from the stratospheric oxidation of
increasing concentrations of atmospheric methane. The increase
may be linked to other climate variations, such as the observed
global temperature rise in recent decades.
"Climatic Warming and the Decline of Zooplankton in the
California Current," D. Roemmich (Marine Life Group, Scripps
Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), J. McGowan, Science, 267(5202),
1324-1326, Mar. 3, 1995.
Since 1951, the biomass of macrozooplankton in waters off
southern California has decreased by 80%. The surface layer of
water has warmed over the same period, by more than 1.5·C in
some places, causing increased stratification and less upwelling
of inorganic nutrients for new biological production. The cause
of the warming is unclear, but the findings show that if the
global temperature rises 1-2·C in the next 40 years and if
stratification increases globally, the biological consequences
could be devastating.
"Tropospheric Budget of Reactive Chlorine," T.E.
Graedel (AT&T Bell Labs., Murray Hill NJ 07974), W.C. Keene, Global
Biogeochem. Cycles, 9(1), 47-77, Mar. 1995.
Reactive chlorine in the lower atmosphere is important to
precipitation acidity, corrosion, foliar damage, and the
chemistry of the marine boundary layer. A synthesis of available
information shows that the tropospheric reactive chlorine burden
appears to be increasing by several percent per year. Coal
combustion is one source, although there are substantial natural
sources. Concentrations are anticipated to increase in the next
several decades, particularly near urban areas in the rapidly
"Long-Term Changes of the Surface Air Temperature in
Relation to Solar Inertial Motion," I. Charvátová
(Geophys. Inst. AS CR, Bocní II, 141 31 Praha 4 - Sporilov,
Czech Rep.), J. Strestír, Clim. Change, 29(3),
333-352, Mar. 1995.
An exploratory study of the possible influence (on surface air
temperature) of the inertial motion of the sun around the center
of mass of the solar system. Statistical examination of
instrumental temperature records suggests a basic cycle of
180-200 years, which would coincide with the relative warmth
observed during 1760-70 and 1940-50. During the period 1990 to
2040, the sun is in another period of chaotic motion, which may
decrease temperature as much as 0.5·C. However, following 2040,
the Sun will enter a very long period of ordered motion which
occurs every 2160 years; a long-term temperature maximum similar
to that observed during the last such period (80 B.C. to 160
A.D.) could ensue.
"Forest Dieback in Russia: Causes, Distribution and
Implications for the Future," O.N. Krankina (Dept. Forest
Sci., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis OR 97331), R.K. Dixon et al., World
Resour. Rev., 6(4), 524-534, Dec. 1994.
Over 20% of the world's forest resources and about half the
boreal forest are located on Russian territory. The total area of
dead forests there is 26.5 X 106 ha; further forest decline is
expected to add about 2 X 106 ha per year. Natural disturbance
accounts for most (70-99%) of the decline, but projected global
climate change is likely to dramatically increase forest decline
and dieback. Widespread and increasing weather-related dieback
recently could indicate that shifts in climate may have started.
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