February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 8, AUGUST 1995
OF GENERAL INTEREST: OZONE DEPLETION
"Impacts of a Projected Depletion of the Ozone Layer," F.R. de
Gruijl (Dermatology Dept., Univ. of Utrecht Hospital, Neth.), Consequences,
1(2), 12-21, Summer 1995.
A comprehensive, peer-reviewed synopsis of current understanding of impacts
on humans and ecosystems. A reduction of 7% in the amount of stratospheric
ozone, the amount expected in summer for middle latitudes by the end of the
century, could increase the incidence of cataracts in humans 3-4%, and increase
non-melanoma skin cancer 12-15%. If the ozone layer were restored to a thickness
characteristic of the 1960s, health risks would be reversed; but even by the
most optimistic scenarios the adverse effects of UV-B radiation due to ozone
depletion will persist into the next century.
"Continued Decline of Total Ozone over Halley, Antarctica, Since
1985," A.E. Jones (Brit. Antarctic Surv., High Cross, Madingley Rd.,
Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), J.D. Shanklin, Nature, 376(6539),
409-411, Aug. 3, 1995.
Reviews the status of the Antarctic ozone hole based on the continued total
ozone measurements at Halley station. The springtime ozone hole continues to
deepen, and the ozone loss extends into January and February, so that
significant increases in UV-B radiation can be expected at the surface in
Antarctica during the summer. A signal of ozone loss is now apparent in the
spring and summer stratospheric temperature records.
Two related items in Nature, 376(6538), July 27, 1995:
"Potential Accumulation of a CFC-Replacement Degradation Product in
Seasonal Wetlands," T.K. Tromp (Atmos. & Environ. Res. Inc., 840
Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA 02139), M.K.W. Ko et al., 327-330. Previous estimates
have shown that future concentrations of the degradation product
trifluoroacetate (TFA) would remain below concentrations thought to inhibit
plant growth. But the model analysis presented here indicates that in conditions
of high evapotranspiration, TFA could reach appreciable concentrations in the
local surface waters of seasonal wetlands within a few decades, under some
"CFC Alternatives Under a Cloud," S.E. Schwartzbach (USFWS Field
Office, 2800 Cottage Way, Sacramento CA 95825), 297-298. Discusses the serious
concerns for ecosystems related to the findings of the previous paper, and
Two related items in Science, 269(5221), July 14, 1995:
"Methyl Chloroform and the Atmosphere," A. Ravishankara (ARL,
NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), D.L. Albritton, 183-184. The findings of
the following paper imply that compliance with the Montreal Protocol will
decrease the amount of chlorine-containing species in the atmosphere, and they
have several scientific implications.
"Atmospheric Trends and Lifetime of CH3CCl3 [methyl chloroform] and
Global OH Concentrations," R.G. Prinn (Dept. Earth Sci., Mass. Inst.
Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), R.F. Weiss et al., 187-192. Methyl chloroform is
involved in ozone depletion, and the hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations
determined from its atmospheric lifetime provide lifetimes of most other
hydrogen-containing gases involved in the ozone layer and climate. Global
measurements of methyl chloroform presented here indicate rising concentrations
before and declining concentrations after late 1991, and a substantially lower
lifetime than previously estimated due to a 20% higher estimate of global OH.
The deduced OH concentration shows little change from 1978 to 1994.
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