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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d95aug11

"A Comparison of Two Radiation Schemes for Calculating Ultraviolet Radiation," P.M. de F. Forster (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Reading, 2 Earley Gate, Whiteknights, POB 239, Reading, RG6 2AU, UK), K.P. Shine, Quart. J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 121(525), 1113-1131, July 1995.

Compares the Discrete-Ordinate method with the Delta-Eddington (D-E) approximation to assess how changes in tropospheric aerosol and cloud affect the accuracy of the D-E approximation. It appears to be deficient for predicting surface irradiance at high spectral resolution under certain circumstances.

Item #d95aug12

"Observations of Ultraviolet Light Reflection and Transmission by First-Year Sea Ice," D.K. Perovich (U.S. Army Cold Regions Res. Lab., Hanover NH 03755), Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(11), 1349-1352, June 1, 1995.

Made observations of young ice in a constructed pond, and first-year sea ice in the field. Albedo generally increased with increasing wavelength from 305 to 380 nm, with values in the 0.4-0.6 range. Transmittance through bare first-year ice was about 0.5%-2.0%. Snow cover profoundly reduced transmittance of UV light through sea ice. The attenuation of UV light by sea ice and snow was greater than that of photosynthetically active radiation.

Item #d95aug13

"Higher UV Radiation Inferred from Low Ozone Levels at Northern Mid-Latitudes in 1992 and 1993," U. Feister (Meteor. Observ., Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Ger.), R. Grewe, Global & Planetary Change, 11(1-2), 25-34, June 1995.

Estimated the effect of ozone and cloudiness on biologically effective UV irradiation by a combination of irradiance measurements and model calculations. Lower cloud amount in summer months enhanced the effect of low ozone values and may have led to adverse biological impacts. Higher cloud amount in winter months reduced the effect.

Item #d95aug14

"A Note on the Recent Increase of Solar UV-B Radiation over Northern Middle Latitudes," C.S. Zerefos (Lab. Atmos. Phys., Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki, Greece), A.F. Bais et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(10), 1245-1247, May 15, 1995.

Three years of measurements at 40° N support earlier findings of increased solar UV-B irradiances under all-skies conditions associated with observed ozone decline during the period.

Item #d95aug15

"The Relationship Between Solar UV Irradiance and Total Ozone from Observations over Southern Argentina," R.D. Bojkov (Atmos. Environ. Serv., 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview ON M3H 5T4, Can.), V.E. Fioletov, ibid., 1249-1252.

Derived a statistical relationship using satellite measurements of total ozone and six years of spectroradiometric measurements of solar UV radiation, and estimated differences in irradiance between 1979-1983 and 1989-1993. For October, the 15% observed decline of total ozone led to irradiance increases of 80% at 300 nm and 35% at 305 nm. During days with ozone-hole conditions, the 300 nm irradiance is as high as it would be at the summer solstice three month later.

Item #d95aug16

"Ozone-Related Trends in Solar UV-B Series," R.E. Basher (Natl. Inst. Water & Atmos. Res., POB 3047, Wellington, N.Z.), ibid., 21(24), 2713-2716, Dec. 1, 1994.

The broken ten-year record of Robertson-Berger meter UV-B measurements is incapable of independently confirming a long-term upward trend, but it does provide specific evidence supporting the trend hypothesis.

Item #d95aug17

"Ultraviolet Solar Radiation in the High Latitudes of South America," J.E. Frederick (Dept. Geophys. Sci., Univ. Chicago, 5734 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago IL 60637), S.B. Diaz et al., Photochem. & Photobiol., 60(4), 356-362, Oct. 1994.

Ozone amounts for 1980-1986 combined with a radiative transfer model provide a climatological baseline against which to interpret four-years of spring and summer UV solar irradiance data from Tierra del Fuego. Measurements in the 340 nm band show that cloudiness has a large influence on both the absolute monthly mean irradiances and their interannual variability.

Item #d95aug18

"Measurements of Chemically and Biologically Effective Radiation Reaching the Ground," U. Feister (Meteor. Observ., Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Ger.), J. Atmos. Chem., 19(3), 289-315, Oct. 1994.

Solar UV radiation measurements on cloudless days show that relations between different effects of radiation to the biosphere depend on solar zenith angle, and to some extent on atmospheric ozone. The relation must be considered when adverse effects of changing UV radiation are evaluated. Radiation Amplification Factors derived from measurements correspond to those determined from model calculations.

Item #d95aug19

"The Canadian Operational Procedure for Forecasting Total Ozone and UV Radiation," W.R. Burrows (Atmos. Environ. Serv., 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview ON M3H 5T4, Can.), M. Vallée et al., Meteorological Applications, 1(3), 247-265, Sep. 1994. (A new quarterly journal published by Roy. Meteor. Soc., 104 Oxford Rd., Reading, Berkshire RG1 7LJ, UK; US $172.)

Describes the procedure used by Environment Canada for daily UV-B forecasts. The "UV Index" is based on an empirical formula relating UV flux at the ground to solar zenith angle, total depth of ozone in a vertical column, and the time of year.

Item #d95aug20

"Ocular and Dermatologic Health Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure from the Ozone Hole in Southern Chile," O.D. Schein (116 Wilmer Bldg., Johns Hopkins Hosp., Baltimore MD 21287), C. Vicencio et al., Amer. J. Publ. Health, 85(4), 546-550, Apr. 1995.

To investigate numerous anecdotal reports of acute ocular and dermatologic disease in humans and animals from this region, medical records were reviewed, ocular examinations were made on representative animal populations, and the ambient UV-B exposure during the time of maximum thinning of the ozone layer was estimated to be a 1% increase in annual average exposure. Results do not support lay reports of ocular and dermatologic disease associated with the ozone hole over southern Chile. However, should the ambient exposure increase, the probability of adverse UV-related chronic health effects may increase.

Item #d95aug21

"Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Between 1979 and 1992: Implications for Biologically Active Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Incidence," S. Madronich (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), F.R. de Gruijl, Photochem. & Photobiol., 59(5), 541-546, May 1994.

Analysis of satellite-based O3 measurements showed that surface UV-B levels increased at all latitudes except the tropics. Dose-response relationships derived from epidemiological data can be combined with UV-B data to estimate the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of expected increases in basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers.

Specialized Papers

Item #d95aug22

"Geographical Differences in the UV Measured by Intercompared Spectroradiometers," G. Seckmeyer (IFU, Kreuzeckbahnstr. 19, 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Ger.), B. Mayer et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(14), 1889-1892, July 15, 1995.

Item #d95aug23

Comment and reply on problems of UV-B radiation measurements in biological research, ibid., 22(9), 1157-1160, May 1, 1995.

Item #d95aug24

"Satellite Estimation of Spectral UVB Irradiance Using TOMS Derived Total Ozone and UV Reflectivity," T.F. Eck (Hughes STX Corp., Code 923, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt MD 20771), P.K. Bhartia, J.B. Kerr, ibid., 22(5), 611-614, Mar. 1, 1995.

Item #d95aug25

"Increased Solar Ultraviolet-B Associated with Record Low Ozone over Texas," F.M. Mims III (Sun Photometer Atmos. Network, 433 Twin Oak Rd., Seguin TX 78155), J.W. Ladd, R.A. Blaha, ibid., 22(3), 227-230, Feb. 1, 1995.

Item #d95aug26

"Measured UV Spectra Compared with Discrete Ordinate Method Simulations," J. Zeng (Geophys. Inst., Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks AK 99775), R. McKenzie et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D11), 23,019-23,030, Nov. 20, 1994.

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