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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d95aug27

"Higher UV Radiation Inferred from Low Ozone Levels at Northern Mid-Latitudes in 1992 and 1993," U. Feister (Meteor. Observ., Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Ger.), R. Grewe, Global & Planetary Change, 11(1-2), 25-34, June 1995.

Estimated the effect of ozone and cloudiness on biologically effective UV irradiation by a combination of irradiance measurements and model calculations. Lower cloud amount in summer months enhanced the effect of low ozone values and may have led to adverse biological impacts. Higher cloud amount in winter months reduced the effect.

Item #d95aug28

Comment on UV-B effect, Nature, 374(6523), 601, Apr. 13, 1995.

Item #d95aug29

"Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and the Risk of Infectious Disease: Summary of a Workshop," R.S. Chapman, . .T.E. Werkema (UMAP Inc., S. 400, W. Tower, 1333 M St. NW, Washington DC 20005), Photochem. & Photobiol., 61(3), 223-247, Mar. 1995.

Review of a workshop (Miami Beach, Mar. 1994) sponsored by EPA and the Ultraviolet Monitoring and Assessment Program Panel. Workshop objectives were to assess evidence for effects of UV radiation changes on infectious diseases and data on dose-response relationships, and to identify scientific uncertainties. Also includes discussion summaries from the workshop that provide information and alternative opinions.

Item #d95aug30

"The Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on a Subarctic Heath Ecosystem," U. Johanson (Dept. Plant Pathol., Lund Univ., Box 117, S-221 Lund, Swed,), C. Gehrke et al., Ambio, 24(2), 106-111, Mar. 1995.

In a field irradiation experiment, decomposition was impaired and annual growth of dwarf shrubs was lower under enhanced UV-B radiation. Leaves were thicker or thinner depending on species. In Hylocomium splendens moss, phenological development was accelerated under enhanced UV-B radiation and number of primary branches, length and dry weight also increased.

Item #d95aug31

"Climate Changes, Ozone Depletion, and Ecological Consequences," Yu.A. Izrael (Inst. Global Climate & Ecol., Main Geophys. Observ., Russia), I.L. Karol et al., Russian Meteor. & Hydrol., No. 2, 1-9, 1994.

Presents recent data on ozone depletion in polar and mid-latitudes, and considers probable resulting changes in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Organisms in the sea surface layer are the most vulnerable to increased UV radiation.

Item #d95aug32

"UVB-Induced Immune Suppression and Infection with Schistosoma mansoni," F.P. Noonan (Dept. Dermatol., School of Medicine, George Washington Univ., Washington DC 20037), F.A. Lewis, Photochem. & Photobiol., 61(1), 99-105, Jan. 1995.

UV-induced immunosuppression of mice resulted in minimal changes in occurrence of helminth parasite infection and resistance to rechallenge by vaccination, in contrast to the effects of UV-B shown in other infectious diseases.

Item #d95aug33

"Incorporation of Multiple Cloud Layers for Ultraviolet Radiation Modeling Studies," D.H. Charache (Dept. Atmos., Oceanic & Space Sci., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), V.J. Abreu et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D11), 23,031-23,039, Nov. 20, 1994.

Used cloud data sets to develop an algorithm for incorporating multiple cloud layers into a multiple-scattering radiative transfer model. Calculations show that decreasing the total column density of ozone by 1% leads to an increase in erythemal exposure by about 1.1-1.3%, in good agreement with previous studies. Inclusion of multiple cloud layers may be important in accurately determining the biologically effective UV budget at the surface of the Earth.

Item #d95aug34

"Measurements of Chemically and Biologically Effective Radiation Reaching the Ground," U. Feister (Meteor. Observ., Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Ger.), J. Atmos. Chem., 19(3), 289-315, Oct. 1994.

Solar UV radiation measurements on cloudless days show that relations between different effects of radiation to the biosphere depend on solar zenith angle, and to some extent on atmospheric ozone. The relation must be considered when adverse effects of changing UV radiation are evaluated. Radiation Amplification Factors derived from measurements correspond to those determined from model calculations.

Item #d95aug35

"Photosynthetic Pigments in the Surface Layer of the Atlantic Ocean Between 50 N and 60 S Related to the Bioproduction of Organohalogens and to the Increase in UV Radiation," D. Drexler, K. Ballschmiter (Dept. Anal. & Environ. Chem., Univ. Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm, Ger.), Chemosphere, 29(7), 1527-1542, Oct. 1994.

Developed a method of sampling and analyzing particulate chlorophyll a and other photosynthetic pigments that provides a sensitive tool to register changes in the total pattern of phytoplankton pigments due to increased UV radiation caused by ozone depletion. The pattern of photosynthetic pigments depended on the sampling site, depth, and time of day.

Item #d95aug36

"The Impact of UV-B Radiation and Ozone on Terrestrial Vegetation," V.C. Runeckles (Dept. Plant Sci., Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4, Can.), S.V. Krupa, Environ. Pollut., 83, 191-213, 1994.

A review. Our knowledge of dose-response relationships under true field conditions is limited and fragmentary. Virtually no information is available about the effects of simultaneous or sequential exposures. Experimentation that is relevant to field situations must use technologies and protocols that focus on quantification of the interactions of UV-B and ozone, and their interactions with other environmental factors.

Item #d95aug37

"Climate Change: Potential Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Ozone (O3), and Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) Radiation on Plant Diseases," W.J. Manning (Dept. Plant Pathol., Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003), A. V. Tiedemann, Environ. Pollut., 88(2), 219-245, 1995.

Very little is known about the actual impacts of climate change factors on disease epidemiology in plants. Increased CO2 could increase plant canopy size and density, with resulting greater biomass and higher microclimate relative humidity. This could promote diseases such as rusts, mildews, leaf spots and blights. Plants weakened through ozone could be more susceptible to necrotrophic pathogens; ozone is unlikely to directly affect fungal pathogens. Increased UV-B could lead to increased disease resistance through increased production of flavinoids, but reduced net photosynthesis, and premature ripening and senescence, could result in variable reactions to disease.

Specialized Papers

Item #d95aug38

"Evaluation of the Role of Damage to Photosystem II in the Inhibition of CO2 Assimilation in Pea Leaves on Exposure to UV-B Radiation," S. Nogus, N.R. Baker (Dept. Biol., Univ. Essex, Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK), Plant, Cell & Environ., 18(7), 781-787, July 1995.

Item #d95aug39

"Early-Season Effects of Supplemented Solar UV-B Radiation on Seedling Emergence, Canopy Structure, Simulated Stand Photosynthesis and Competition for Light," P.W. Barnes (Dept. Biol., Southwest Texas State Univ., San Marcos TX 78666), S.D. Flint, M.M. Caldwell, Global Change Biol., 1(1), 43-53, Feb. 1995.

Item #d95aug40

"Effects of Ultraviolet-B Radiation (UV-B) on Growth and Physiology of the Dune Grassland Species Calamagrostis epigeios," M. Tosserams (Faculty Biol., Vrije Univ., De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Neth.), J. Rozema, Environ. Pollut., 89(2), 209-214, 1995.

Item #d95aug41

"Ozone Exposure Decreases UVB Sensitivity in a UVB-Sensitive Flavonoid Mutant of Arabidopsis," M.V. Rao (Dept. Hort. Sci., Univ. Guelph, Guelph ON N1G 2W1, Can.), D.P. Ormrod, Photochem. & Photobiol., 61(1), 71-78, Jan. 1995.

Item #d95aug42

"Penetration of Solar UV Irradiation in Coastal Lagoons of the Southern Baltic Sea and Its Effect on Phytoplankton Communities," H. Piazena, D.-P. Hder (Inst. Bot. & Pharmazeutische Biol., Friedrich Alexander Univ., Staudstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen, Ger.), ibid., 60(5), 463-469, Nov. 1994.

Item #d95aug43

"A Dosimetric Technique for the Measurement of Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure to Plants," A.V. Parisi, C.F. Wong (Ctr. Medical & Health Phys., Queensland Univ. Technol., GPO Box 2434, Brisbane 4001, Australia), ibid., 470-474.

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