February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1995
OF GENERAL INTEREST: SCIENCE
"Global-Mean Temperature and Sea Level Consequences of
Greenhouse Gas Concentration and Stabilization," T.M.L.
Wigley (Clim. Res. Unit., Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), Geophys.
Res. Lett., 22(1), 45-48, Jan. 1, 1995.
Uses models previously employed by the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change to calculate scenarios of future CO2
levels stabilized at 350-750 ppmv, to the year 2500.
Uncertainties are large, but results show that even with
concerted efforts at stabilization, substantial increases in
temperature and sea level can be expected over the next century.
Sea level could continue to increase for many centuries after
stabilization due to the extremely long time scales associated
with the deep ocean (thermal expansion) and with large ice
"Atmospheric Effects of the Mt. Pinatubo Eruption,"
M.P. McCormick (Div. Atmos. Sci., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA
23681), L.W. Thomason, C.R. Trepte, Nature, 373(6513),
399-404, Feb. 2, 1995.
This extensive review concludes that the June 1991 eruption
put an end to several years of globally warm surface
temperatures, and in combination with anthropogenic reactive
chlorine, led to record low levels of stratospheric ozone. The
event caused the largest perturbation in this century to the
particulate content of the stratosphere, providing a rare and
valuable opportunity to test dynamic, chemical and radiative
models of the climate system that are being used to estimate
future climate perturbations from anthropogenic emissions. Much
more work is needed to fully exploit the data from this natural
the Effects of Stratospheric Circulation Changes on Trace Gas
Trends," S.M. Schlauffer (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307),
J.S. Daniel, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D12),
25,747-25,754, Dec. 20, 1994.
Proposes a mechanism that could have contributed to the
decrease in the trends of atmospheric levels of methane, nitrous
oxide and CO2 that occurred in 1992. Increased
stratospheric circulation caused by heating from the volcanic
aerosols injected by the Mount Pinatubo eruption could have
caused greater exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere,
diluting the tropospheric levels of those trace gases.
related items in Nature, 373(6509), Jan. 5, 1995:
"Ice Sheets and Sea Level," D. Bromwich (Byrd Polar
Res. Ctr., Ohio State Univ., 125 S. Oval Mall, Columbus OH
43210), 18-19. Discusses implications of the following paper.
"Dominant Influence of Atmospheric Circulation on Snow
Accumulation in Greenland over the Past 18,000 Years," W.R.
Kapsner (Earth Sys. Sci. Ctr., Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ.
Pk. PA 16802), R.B. Alley et al., 52-54. Study of the GISP ice
core indicates that atmospheric circulation, not temperature, has
been the primary control on snow accumulation in central
Greenland over the past 18,000 years. In a greenhouse-warmed
world, circulation changes may be more important than temperature
effects in determining snow accumulation in Greenland and how its
ice sheet affects sea-level.
"Massive Iceberg Discharges as Triggers for Global Climate
Change," W.S. Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observ., Rte.
9W, Palisades NY 10964), Nature, 372(6505),
421-424, Dec. 1, 1994.
Evaluates current understanding of large and abrupt climate
changes recorded in Greenland ice cores and evidenced in ocean
sediments, suggesting that at six times during the past
glaciation, huge armadas of icebergs have spread from Canada
across the northern Atlantic. Of practical concern is whether the
climate system could be kicked into alternate modes of operation
as greenhouse gases increase.
"Putting Declining Amphibian Populations in Perspective:
Natural Fluctuations and Human Impacts," J.H.K. Pechmann
(Savannah River Ecol. Lab., Univ. Georgia, P.O. Drawer E., Aiken
SC 29802), H.M. Wilbur, Herpetologica, 50, 65-84,
Provides theoretical, empirical and philosophical perspective
on whether to interpret declines and disappearances of amphibian
populations as natural or anthropogenic events, concluding that
the evidence is equivocal. Concern about the status of amphibian
populations is clearly warranted, but formulation of appropriate
null hypotheses and further study are still needed.
Current State and Future Direction of Eulerian Models in
Simulating the Tropospheric Chemistry and Transport of Trace
Species: A Review," L.K. Peters (Dept. Chem. Eng., Virginia
Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg VA 24061), C.M. Berkowitz et al., Atmos.
Environ., 29(2), 189-222, Jan. 1995.
Central improvements that would result in a "third
generation" model involve feedback processes between
meteorology and chemistry, aerosol formation in cloud
development, and impacts of chemical perturbations on radiation,
climate and biogeochemical cycles. Also includes a comparison of
characteristics of existing models, and extensive references.
"Atmospheric Wet Deposition of Nutrient Elements:
Correlation with Harmful Biological Blooms in Northwest Pacific
Coastal Zones," J. Zhang (Dept. Marine Chem., Ocean Univ.
Qingdao, 5 Yushan Rd., Qingdao 266003, China), Ambio, 23(8),
464-468, Dec. 1994.
Provides evidence of a correlation between harmful plankton
blooms and episodic atmospheric deposition of nutrients in
coastal oligotrophic zones. In the Yellow Sea, where there is
little influence of waste runoff from land, atmospheric
deposition may be the major source of nutrient elements for the
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations