February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1995
growth rate decrease: The growth rate of global CO2
declined abruptly from 1991 to 1992; model calculations suggest
that an increase in the Northern Hemisphere sink is the cause.
(See "Evidence for Interannual Variability of the Carbon
Cycle from the [NOAA/CMDL] Global Air Sampling Network,"
T.J. Conway, P.P. Tans et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D11),
22,831-22,855, Nov. 20, 1994).
and ozone depletion: A recent paper proposes that inclusion
of iodine helps explain a pattern of ozone depletion that has
been difficult to quantify on the basis of chlorine and bromine
chemistry alone. (See Chem. Eng. News, pp. 8-9, Nov. 14
1994. And see "On the Role of Iodine in Ozone
Depletion," S. Solomon, R.R. Garcia, A.R. Ravishankara,
instability: Model simulations show that global warming could
trigger a dramatic shift in the deep ocean "conveyer
belt" circulation, leading to a sudden 5·C drop in sea
surface temperature in the North Atlantic, comparable to ice age
conditions. The patterns predicted in the model seem consistent
with recent changes observed in North Atlantic circulation, but
oceanographers are divided over the significance of those
observations. (See Two related items in Nature, 372(6501),
Nov. 3, 1994: "Rapid Climate Transitions in a Coupled
Ocean-Atmosphere Model," S. Rahmstorf, 82-85; and
"Conveying Past Climates," E. Boyle, A. Weaver, 41-42.
And see New Scientist, pp. 20-21, Nov. 19 1994)
model available: OECD's General Equilibrium Environmental
Model (GREEN), designed to analyze the effects of CO2
emission abatement policies on global economic activity, trade,
and the allocation of resources, is now available for general
use. To receive a descriptive flyer contact Suzanne Edam
research briefings: GEC-O, the quarterly newsletter of
the U.K. Global Environmental Change Program, now includes
four-page research Briefings. Topics included with the
latest issue (Autumn 1994) are saving energy in buildings,
environmental taxes, and global trends in population and food.
Contact GEC Prog., c/o Environment Section, Wye Coll., Wye, Kent
TN25 5AH, UK (tel: 01233-812401; fax: 01233-813187).
ozone as a greenhouse gas is a growing concern, as discussed
in the Sep. issue of the IGBP Global Change Newsletter
(pp. 1-3). That issue also includes an insert on the
International Tropospheric Ozone Years (ITOY), a proposed program
to monitor ozone at a global scale over a two-year period, with
emphasis on the tropics and subtropics. (A section of papers on
tropospheric ozone appears in this issue of Global Climate
"Satellite Detects a Global Sea Level Rise," R.
Monastersky, Science News, p. 388, Dec. 10. U.S. and
French scientists reported at the fall meeting of the American
Geophysical Union that global sea levels have risen faster in the
last two years than in previous decades. However, there is no way
of knowing whether this is a long-term trend or a temporary
fluctuation related, for instance, to El Niņo.
Sunny Side of Weather: How Can Minute Changes in Solar Rays
Influence Conditions on the Ground?" R. Monastersky, Science
News, pp. 380-381, Dec. 3. Explains the leading theories for
how the sun influences the atmosphere on time scales up to the
length of the 11-year solar cycle.
Ages: The Peat Bog Connection," F. Pearce, New Scientist,
p. 18, Dec. 3. Lars Franzen of Gothenburg University in Sweden
thinks that peat bogs, by absorbing so much carbon from the
atmosphere, eventually cools the Earth causing ice age cycles.
"Pumping Iron in the Pacific," K. Van Scoy, K. Coale, ibid.,
pp. 32-35. Full-length article by two participants of the recent
experiment exploring the uptake of atmospheric CO2 by
ocean phytoplankton "fertilized" with iron. They
describe its findings, and the new questions it raises that are
leading to another experiment in May.
Rise and Rise of Global Warming," R. Matthews, ibid.,
p. 6, Nov. 26. A modeling team at the U.K. Hadley Centre for
climate prediction has been able, for the first time, to
reproduce past fluctuations of the Earth's climate. The model
simulates the radiative effect of sulfate particles, finding that
it offsets about 30% of greenhouse warming. (See related paper by
the Hadley group in Global Climate Change Digest, Sep
"Rustic Site Draws a Crowd To Monitor Global Warming,"
R. Stone, Science, pp. 360-361, Oct. 21. Describes the
wide variety of research based at Toolik Lake, Alaska, one of the
18 Long-Term Ecological Research sites supported by the National
Science Foundation. Many scientists expect the Arctic to be a
bellwether of any climate change.
"Seabed Study Dates Northern Ice Age," J. Hecht, New
Scientist, p. 15, Oct. 1. The spread of ice in the Northern
Hemisphere began up to five million years earlier than was
generally believed, according to new evidence from the Ocean
Drilling Program. The age of the Greenland ice cap and the uneven
growth of northern ice sheets are new puzzles for climatologists.
"Learning from Past Climates," A.J. Broccoli, Nature,
p. 282, Sep. 22. Summarizes discussions at a workshop (Silver
Spring, Md., Aug. 1994) of the potential for paleoclimatic data
to yield information on climate change from greenhouse gases,
particularly the role to be played by important paleoclimatic
data from the Soviet Union. The U.S. should fund the work needed
to integrate such data into existing global archives.
"Climate Modeling's Fudge Factor Comes under Fire,"
R.A. Kerr, Science, p. 1258, Sep. 9. A recent study shows
that adjustment of surface fluxes of heat and moisture between
the atmosphere and ocean, often made to coupled atmosphere-ocean
models, may disguise but not correct model defects. (See
"Destabilization of the Thermohaline Circulation by
Atmospheric Eddy Transports," M. Nakamura, P.H. Stone, J.
Marotzke, J. Clim., 7(12), 1870-1882, Dec. 1994.)
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