February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 7, JULY 1995
MARINE PRODUCTIVITY AND FERTILIZATION
"Reduction of Fe(III) with Sulfite in Natural Waters," F.J.
Millero (Rosenstiel Sch. Mar. & Atmos. Sci., Univ. Miami, Miami FL 33149),
M. Gonzalez-Davila, J.M. Santana-Casiano, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D4),
7235-7244, Apr. 20, 1995.
Measures reduction rates of nanomolar levels of Fe(III) by S(IV) in the
absence of oxygen as a function of ionic strength and composition. The rates of
reduction in acidic water droplets at natural levels of S(IV) may be an
important source of Fe(II).
"Importance of Iron for Plankton Blooms and Carbon Dioxide Drawdown
in the Southern Ocean," H.J.W. de Baar (Netherlands Inst. Sea Res., POB 59,
1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, Neth.), J.T.M. de Jong et al., Nature, 373(6513),
412-415, Feb. 2, 1995.
Tests iron as a limiting nutrient for plankton productivity by looking at
natural levels of productivity in regions of the ocean with differing iron
abundance. Iron availability appears to be the critical factor in allowing
blooms to occur.
"Ecosystem Changes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre Attributed
to the 1991-92 El Niño," D.M. Karl (SOEST, Dept. Oceanog., Univ.
Hawaii, Honolulu HI 96822), R. Letelier et al., ibid., 373(6511),
230-234, Jan. 19, 1995.
Presents evidence of a major change in the structure and productivity of the
pelagic ecosystem, attributed to the 1991-1992 event. Decreased upper-ocean
mixing and a change in circulation resulted in increased abundance and activity
of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and a shift from a primarily nitrogen-limited
to a primarily phosphorus-limited habitat.
Related articles in ibid., 372(6507), Dec. 8, 1994:
A comment by J.R. Toggweiler (GFDL, POB 308, Princeton NJ 08542) on the
research implications of the following article, 505-506.
"Carbon-Cycle Imbalances in the Sargasso Sea," A.F. Michaels
(Bermuda Biol. Sta. Res., Ferry Reach GEO1, Bermuda), N.R. Bates et al.,
537-540. The decrease in carbon stocks from spring to autumn in the upper 150 m
of the ocean is three times larger than the measured sum of biotic and abiotic
fluxes out of this layer. This discrepancy can be explained either by failure to
account for horizontal advection of carbon or by inaccuracies in the fluxes of
sinking particles as measured using sediment traps.
"Satellite Detection of Increased Cyanobacteria Blooms in the Baltic
Sea: Natural Fluctuation of Ecosystem Change?" M. Kahru (Scripps Inst.
Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), U. Horstmann, O. Rud, Ambio, 23(8),
469-472, Dec. 1994.
Data for 1982-1993 show that the total area covered by blooms has increased
in the 1990s, reaching over 62,000 km in 1992. The cause of the increase is
"Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange: An Accessible Lab Simulation for
Considering Biological Effects," D.A. Noever (NASA Marshall Space Flight
Ctr., ES-76, Huntsville AL 35812), H.C. Matsos et al., Clim. Change,
27(3), 299-320, July 1994.
Monitored the effects of atmospheric CO2 on dense suspensions of
bioconvecting microorganisms to study critical properties of the vertical
migration of phytoplankton. The ability of such a biologically active suspension
to detect atmospheric changes offers a unique method to quantify organism
adjustment and vertical migration.
"Modeling the Inorganic Phosphorus Cycle of the North Pacific Using
an Adjoint Data Assimilation Model to Assess the Role of Dissolved Organic
Phosphorus," R.J. Matear (Inst. Ocean Sci., POB 6000, Sidney BC V8L 4B2,
Can.), G. Holloway, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 9(1), 101-119,
Comments on growth limits on phytoplankton, Nature, 373(6509),
28, Jan. 5, 1995.
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