February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1995
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE: EARTH SYSTEM PROPERTIES
Climate and Cyclones to Reductions in Arctic Winter Sea Ice," R.J. Murray
(Sch. Earth Sci., Univ. Melbourne, Parkville, 3052 Victoria, Australia), I.
Simmonds, J. Geophys. Res., 100(C3), 4791-4806, Mar. 15, 1995.
A simulation of perpetual January, to study changes induced by reductions in
sea ice, indicated a significant decrease in the speeds and intensities of
cyclonic systems north of 45oN, but little overall change in areal densities or
arrangement of the major storm tracks.
Analysis of Temperature Extremes: Spatial Analog for Climate Change?" B.G.
Brown (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), R.W. Katz,
J. Clim., 8(1), 108-119, Jan. 1995.
Statistical analysis suggests that the Type I extreme value distribution is
a satisfactory model for extreme high temperatures; Type III is often a better
model for extreme low temperatures. If a temporal climate change were analogous
to a spatial relocation, then it would be possible to anticipate how the
frequency of extreme temperature events might change.
"Impact of the
Greenhouse Effect on Sea-Ice Characteristics and Snow Accumulation in the Polar
Regions," B.G. Hunt (Div. Atmos. Res., CSIRO, Pvt.. Bag 1, Mordialloc 3195
Vic., Australia), H.B. Gordon, H.L. Davies, Intl. J. Climatol., 15(1),
3-23, Jan. 1995.
Global climatic model simulations show substantial reductions occurring in
sea-ice thickness, and to a lesser extent in sea-ice area, under doubled CO2.
The major impact would be in summer. Water mass accumulation over the great
ice-sheets agreed moderately well with limited observations for control
Cluster AnalysisSynoptic Meteorology Links to Characterize Chemical
Climates at Six Northwest European Monitoring Stations," S.R. Dorling (Sch.
Environ. Sci., Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ, UK), T.D. Davies, Atmos.
Environ., 29(2), 145-167, Jan. 1995.
The success of this approach, when applied to U.K. conditions, suggests that
a basis for estimating future levels of acidic deposition there may lie in
predictions of atmospheric circulation patterns resulting from natural or
anthropogenic climate change.
of the Terrestrial Biosphere to Climatic Change: A Simulation of the Middle
Holocene," J.A. Foley (Inst. Environ. Stud., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI
53706), Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8(4), 505-525, Dec. 1994.
Applies a process-based model, DEMETER, to current climate and to a
simulated mid-Holocene climate. Mid-Holocene global net primary productivity is
about 3% greater than present, due largely to the increase of boreal forest and
tropical grasslands relative to tundra and desert, and global vegetation carbon
is higher by about 4%. Despite regional changes in productivity and carbon
storage, the simulated total carbon storage potential of the terrestrial
biosphere does not change significantly between the two simulations.
High Temperature Extremes in the Southeastern United States," D. Changnon
(Dept. Geog., Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb IL 60115), Phys. Geog.,
14(6), 599-611, Nov.-Dec. 1993.
Analysis of 41 years of data shows that great variability already exists in
today's climate characteristics, and that any potential shift in average
temperature will cause even greater changes in the frequency and duration of
extreme high temperature.
Change and Tropical Cyclones," J. Lighthill (Dept. Mathematics, Univ.
College, Gower St., London WC1E 6BT, UK), G. Holland et al., Bull. Amer.
Meteor. Soc., 75(11), 2147-2157, Nov. 1994.
Used two methodologies to assesss the consequences of doubled CO2 over the
next 60-70 years on the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. Neither
method showed any significant changes; and although minor, indirect effects
cannot be excluded, they would be swamped by large natural variability.
Increased CO2 on Simulated ENSO-Like Phenomena," T.R. Knutson (GFDL, POB
308, Princeton NJ 08542), S. Manabe, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(21),
2295-2298, Oct. 15, 1994.
Multi-century experiments using a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM with 4xCO2
show that, despite an order 5K warming of the tropical Pacific and an order 50%
increase in time-mean atmospheric water vapor, ENSO-like SST fluctuations do not
intensify, but rather decrease slightly.
off Eastern North America: Its Relationship to Sea Ice Variability and Climate
Change," J.R. Marko (Arctic Sciences Ltd., 1986 Mills Rd., R.R. 2, Sidney
BC V8L 3S1, Can.), D.B. Fissel et al., J. Clim., 7(9), 1335-1351, Sep.
Develops an iceberg dissipation model that explains the major features of
interannual and seasonal iceberg number variations in terms of sea ice extent
parameters. If data for the last four decades represent a regional response to
global warming, the response has been toward lower temperatures and higher ice
extents, in contrast to the warming and ice retreat that have been predicted by
"Storm Tracks in
a High-Resolution GCM with Doubled Carbon Dioxide," N.M.J. Hall (Dept.
Meteor., Univ. Reading, 2 Early Gate, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 2AU,
UK), B.J. Hoskins et al., Quart. J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 120(519),
1209-1230, July 1994 (Part B).
On synoptic time scales, indicators of storm-track activity such as eddy
kinetic energy are shifted northwards and intensified downstream by doubled CO2,
especially in the Atlantic. Total zonal-mean poleward energy transport is only
slightly different, but doubled CO2 changes the transient eddy contribution.
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