February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1995
"Solar-Hydrogen Electricity Generation in the Context of
Global CO2 Emission Reduction," L.D.D. Harvey
(Dept. Geog., Univ. Toronto, 100 St. George St., Toronto ON M5S
1A1, Can.), Clim. Change, 29(1), 53-89, Jan. 1995.
Compares relative costs of solar-hydrogen, a solar-fossil fuel
hybrid, and advanced fossil fuel generation, and determines the
differences in CO2 emissions. The global warming
effect of solar-hydrogen from leakage of hydrogen is similar to
that of a natural gas-solar hybrid system after one year, but
about 1% of the impact of the hybrid system on a 100-year time
scale. Impacts on stratospheric ozone are likely to be minuscule.
"Carbon Dioxide: Global Problem and Global Resource,"
K.A. Magrini (Natl. Renewable Energy Lab., 1617 Cole Blvd.,
Golden CO 80401), D. Boron, Chem. & Industry,
997-1000, Dec. 19, 1994.
A chemical and fuels industry, based entirely on CO2
as a resource, would use less than 1% of total emissions.
However, there would be environmental and economic incentives for
CO2-based industry, such as avoiding the use of toxic
feedstocks, future CO2 emissions and hazardous
"Reforestation Trials in the Russian Far East [RFE],"
R.F. Lowery (Intl. Reforestation, Weyerhaeuser Co., Tacoma WA
98477), I. Perevertailo, World Resour. Rev., 6(4),
477-489, Dec. 1994.
Seedlings, raised in the U.S. from RFE seeds and then planted
in the RFE, survived and grew well at a wide range of sites,
including a large-scale project. Given good logistical support
and a well-trained work force, reforestation of burned and
harvested areas in the RFE should be successful.
"Technical Communication: The Temporal Decoupling of Energy
Production from Fossil Fuels and the Emission of Carbon Dioxide
(CO2) into the Atmosphere," W. Seifritz
(Chapfstr. 4, CH-5200 Windisch, Switz.), Intl. J. Hydrogen
Energy, 19(11), 925-927, Nov. 1994.
Means of decoupling the instantaneous emission of CO2
from energy production are: CO2 disposal in exhausted
oil and gas fields or in the deep ocean; or storage in
terrestrial dry-ice domes or in aquifers. If these means are
feasible and costs are tolerable, a decarbonized hydrogen economy
may be possible for the next 50-100 years without harnessing new
carbon-free primary energy sources.
Effectiveness of Marine CO2 Disposal," H.S.
Kheshgi (Corporate Res., Exxon Res. & Eng. Co., Annandale NJ
08801), B.P. Flannery et al., Energy, 19(9),
967-974, Sep. 1994.
Compares the time trends of atmospheric CO2
concentration for fossil fuel production with and without deep
marine disposal of CO2. Because CO2
collection and disposal consumes energy and produces extra CO2,
some of which reaches the atmosphere, atmospheric concentrations
from systems with marine disposal ultimately exceed those from
systems without it. Global Warming Potential comparisons
highlight the issue of determining what time scales are important
when considering options to reduce global warming.
"Projected Impact of Deep Ocean Carbon Dioxide Discharge on
Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations," G.C. Nihous
(Pacific Intl. Ctr. High Technol. Res., Honolulu, HI 96822), S.M.
Masutani et al., Clim. Change, 27(2), 225-244, June
For CO2 direct removal measures to be effective,
modeling results show that large fractions of anthropogenic CO2
must be processed. Energy conservation is the most effective way
to mitigate the greenhouse effect because it allows a delay in
implementing new energy production alternatives.
"Tradable Cumulative CO2 Permits and Global
Warming Control," R.F. Kosobud (Dept. Econ., Univ. Illinois,
Chicago IL 60680), T.A. Daly et al., Energy J., 15(2),
213-232, Apr. 1994.
Uses a price-sensitive global economic model linked to a
climate change submodel to examine policy options for stabilizing
greenhouse gas concentrations at low to moderate risk levels by
2100, as an alternative to current proposals to freeze emissions
at their 1990 levels by 2000. Explores a policy that could
stabilize induced climate change, provide for creation of
international "property rights" in the stratosphere by
means of tradable emission permits, and be more intertemporally
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Index of Abbreviations