February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1995
IMPACTS OF ELEVATED CO2
"Carbon Dioxide Emissions at an Italian Mineral Spring:
Measurements of Average CO2 Concentration and Air
Temperature," P.R. van Gardingen (Inst. Ecol. & Resour.
Mgmt., Univ. Edinburgh, W. Mains Rd., Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK), J.
Grace et al., Agric. & For. Meteor., 73(1-2),
17-27, Feb. 1995. (See related paper: "Long-Term Effects of
Naturally Elevated CO2 on Mediterranean Grassland and
Forest Trees," C. Körner, F. Miglietta, Oecologia, 99(3-4),
Plants at a site of natural CO2 vents respond to
the concentration of CO2 during the day, rather than
the much higher nighttime concentrations, making the system
useful for biological research.
"Estimating Australian Forest Fire Danger Under Conditions
of Doubled Carbon Dioxide Concentrations," T. Beer (CSIRO
Bushfire Unit, Mordialloc 3195, Australia), A. Williams, Clim.
Change, 29(2), 169-188, Feb. 1995.
Two different models predict an increase in fire danger over
much of Australia for doubled CO2. They confirm that
annually averaged daily relative humidity is the single most
important variable in estimating forest fire danger; even though
the models tend to produce relative humidities that are slightly
too low, and to overestimate fire danger.
"Mechanisms of Shrubland Expansion: Land Use, Climate or CO2?"
S. Archer (Dept. Rangeland Ecol. & Mgmt., Texas A&M
Univ., College Sta. TX 77843), D.S. Schimel, E.A. Holland, ibid., 29(1),
91-99, Jan. 1995.
Evaluation of the CO2 enrichment hypotheses shows
that there is not a cause-and-effect relationship between the
increase in atmospheric CO2 since the Industrial
Revolution and displacement of grasses by woody plants in many
arid and semi-arid ecosystems.
"Arctic Chill for CO2 Uptake," (see Global
Climate Change Digest, Oct 1994.)
"Transient Nature of CO2 Fertilization in Arctic
Tundra," (see Global Climate Change Digest, p. 2,
issue: "The Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE)
Cotton Project: A New Field Approach to Assess the Biological
Consequences of Global Change," W.A. Dugas (Texas Agric.
Experiment Sta., 808 E. Blackland Rd., Temple TX 76502), P.J.
Pinter Jr., Eds., Agric. & For. Meteor., 70(1-4),
approx. 300 pp., Sep. 1994. Order from Elsevier, POB 882, Madison
Sq. Sta., New York NY 10159.
Includes 21 papers reporting study results from a site at
Maricopa, Arizona, that used cotton as the primary crop, and a CO2
enrichment system that allows stable control of gas concentration
over large areas for entire growing seasons. Examines the design
and performance of the FACE apparatus, and the effects of
elevated CO2 and irrigation treatments on plant growth
and physiology, rhizosphere processes, and water and energy
"Modeling the Global Carbon Cycle. . ," (see Global
Climate Change Digest, Sep 1994).
"Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange: An Accessible Lab
Simulation for Considering Biological Effects," D.A. Noever
(NASA Marshall Space Flight Ctr., ES-76, Huntsville AL 35812),
H.C. Matsos et al., Clim. Change, 27(3), 299-320,
Monitored the effects of atmospheric CO2 on dense
suspensions of bioconvecting microorganisms to study critical
properties of the vertical migration of phytoplankton. The
ability of such a biologically active suspension to detect
atmospheric changes offers a unique method to quantify organism
adjustment and vertical migration.
"Plant Responses to Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment in
the Face of Environmental Constraints: A Review of the Past 10
Years' Research," K.E. Idso (Bot. Dept., Arizona State
Univ., Tempe AZ 85287), S.B. Idso, Agric. & For. Meteor., 69(3-4),
153-203, July 1994.
Analysis of plant carbon exchange rate and dry weight
responses to CO2 enrichment shows that the percentage
increase in growth produced by raising the air's CO2
content is generally not reduced by less-than-optimal levels of
light, water or soil nutrients, nor by high temperatures,
salinity or gaseous air pollution. The relative growth-enhancing
effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment are greatest
when resource limitations and environmental stresses are most
"Long-Term Effects of Naturally Elevated CO2 on
Mediterranean Grassland and Forest Trees," C. Körner (Bot.
Inst., Univ. Basel, Schönbeinstr. 6, CH-4056, Basel, Switz.), F.
Miglietta, Oecologia, 99(3-4), 343-351, 1994.
Plants growing in a bowl-shaped, 1-ha "CO2
spring" near Sienna, Italy, compared to those growing on a
similar substrate nearby, do not grow faster, flower earlier, or
become larger. However, large differences in tissue quality were
found among the 40 species studied. These alterations could be
expected in other plant communities if atmospheric CO2
levels continue to rise.
"Will Increases in Atmospheric CO2 Affect
Regrowth Following Grazing in C4 Grasses from Tropical
Grasslands? A Test with Sporobolus kentrophyllus,"
B.J. Wilsey (Dept. Biol., Syracuse Univ., 110 College Pl.,
Syracuse NY 13244), S.J. McNaughton, J.S. Coleman, ibid., 99(1-2),
Grew a C4 grass from the Serengeti under ambient and doubled
CO2, and under clipped and unclipped conditions. The
grasses will show little direct response to future increases in
"Effects of Low and Elevated CO2 on C3 and C4
Annuals. I. Growth and Biomass Allocation," J.K. Dippery
(Dept. Bot., Duke Univ., Durham NC 27708), D.T. Tissue et al., Oecologia, 101(1),
13-20, Jan. 1995.
from Nature, 372(6507), Dec. 15, 1994:
Discussion on climate, CO2 and plant abundance,
Comment on carbon fixation by an Arctic tundra ecosystem
exposed to elevated CO2, 626.
"Predicting Responses of Photosynthesis and Root Fraction to
Elevated [CO2]a: Interactions Among Carbon, Nitrogen
and Growth," Y. Luo (Biol. Sci. Ctr., Desert Res. Inst.,
Univ. Nevada, POB 60220, Reno NV 89506), C.B. Field, H.A. Mooney, Plant,
Cell & Environ., 17(11), 1195-1204, Nov. 1994.
from Oecologia, 99(3-4), 1994:
"13C Discrimination During CO2 Assimilation by
the Terrestrial Biosphere," J. Lloyd (Inst. Advanced
Studies, Australian Natl. Univ., GPO Box 475, Canberra ACT 2601,
Australia), G.D. Farquhar, 201-215. A review.
"The Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Fertilization
on Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Birch, Betula pendula
(Roth)," A. Lavola (Dept. Biol., Univ. Joensuu, SF-80101
Joensuu, Finland), R. Julkunen-Tiitto, 315-321.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations