February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 11, NOVEMBER 1995
Economic Approaches to Cost Estimates for the Control of Carbon
Dioxide Emissions, Z-.X. Zhang, H. Folmer, 28 pp., June 1995. Available from
the first author at Dept. General Econ., Landbouwuniversitat Wageningen, POB
8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, Neth. (fax: 31 317 484763).
Highlights in a general manner the relative strengths and weaknesses of the
different economic approaches that have been used: ad hoc, dynamic
optimization, computable general equilibrium, and hybrid (top-down and bottom-up
models). Illustrates how the different approaches can shed light on different
questions regarding emission control costs.
Independent NGO Evaluations of National Plans for Climate Change
Mitigation: Central and Eastern Europe, Feb. 1995. Climate Network Europe,
44 rue du Taciturne, 1040 Brussels, Belg. (tel: 32 2 231 0180; fax: 32 2 230
5713; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Energy Technologies to Reduce CO2 Emissions in Europe: Prospects,
Competition, Synergy, Sep. 1995, $79. (OECD)
Based on a 1994 workshop held in the Netherlands. Explores a wide range of
energy technologies; provides projections to 2020 for several of them.
Industrial Demand Side Management: A Status Report, Pacific
Northwest Laboratory, 1995. For sale by NTIS.
DSM programs can potentially save up to a quarter of the energy used by
industry, with motors and lighting being the major sources of savings. Benefits
to participating companies include lower utility bills, process improvements,
waste reduction and good public relations. Benefits to utilities include load
retention and load management. Barriers to widespread implementation include a
perception among some companies that DSM programs may increase their utility
bills and benefit their competitors.
The Costs of Carbon Sequestration: A Revealed Preference Approach,
R. Stavins, Sep. 1995. Environ. & Natural Resour. Prog., Harvard Univ., 79
JFK St., Cambridge MA 02138 (tel: 617 495 1390; fax: 617 495 1635).
Concludes that the costs of preventing deforestation are significantly lower
than the costs of reforestation in the same region. Carbon sequestration efforts
should be focused in areas of relatively high deforestation, such as the
tropics, which typically provide more efficient carbon storage than temperate
forests. Contrary to previous analyses, this one uses information about the
landowner's behavior, such cocnern over quality of life or the desire to remain
Carbon Sequestration by Plantation Forests (Calculations Revised as
of June 1995), New Zealand Forestry Res. Inst., 1995. Ministry of Forestry,
POB 1610, Wellington, N.Z. (tel: 64 4 472 1569; fax: 64 4 472 2314).
By the year 2000, New Zealand should be close to its target of stabilizing
net emissions at 1990 levels, taking into account the use of forests as carbon
sinks. Projected carbon absorption by 2000 is down by 13% over earlier
projections, but by 2010 New Zealand's forests will be absorbing an amount of
CO2 equal to the country's emissions.
Interim Report on Climate Change Studies (DOE/PO-0032), C.
Ramos-Mañé, R. Benioff, Eds., 114 pp., Mar. 1995. Contact U.S.
Country Studies Mgmt. Team, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington DC 20585 (tel:
202 426 1628; fax: 202 426 1540; e-mail: email@example.com).
Documents significant achievements made by 21 of the 55 countries that are
conducting climate change country studies with support from the U.S. Country
Studies Program, in preparation for submitting national reports in fulfillment
of the requirements of the climate convention. The 15 papers discuss inventories
of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, assessments of climate change
vulnerability and adaptive responses, and evaluations of mitigation options to
reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases. Papers were contributed by Bolivia,
China, Czech Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Malawi, Mexico, Mongolia,
Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zimbabwe, and seven Central American countries working
as a group.
Transportation, Energy, and the Environment: Balancing Goals and
Identifying Policies, Aug. 1995, $200. Consumer Energy Council of America
Res. Foundation (CECA/RF), 2000 L St. NW, S. 802, Washington DC 20036 (tel: 202
659 0404; fax: 202 659 0407).
Results from a year-long consensus-building project involving industry
representatives, environmental and consumer groups, and federal, state and local
transportation agencies. Carbon emissions will increase over the next 20 years
unless substantial policy changes are made. Examples are peak-load pricing of
trips, and fuel taxation that reflects the total social cost of energy
consumption. Policies should rely on market mechanisms whenever possible,
although if market mechanisms are inadequate, swift government action is
Climate Change: Implications for Designation and Management of
Protected Areas, Aug. 1995. Contact Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF),
European Policy Off., Brussels (tel: 32 2 347 3030), or WWF headquarters,
CH-1196 Gland, Switz. (tel: 44 22 364 91 11).
Submitted to the European Commission to improve the understanding,
development and implementation of means for increasing ecosystem resilience to
climate change impacts.
China: Issues and Options in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control,
Mar. 1995. Available from World Bank Industry & Energy Div., 1818 H St. NW,
Washington DC 20433 (tel: 202 473 1978; fax: 202 477 1978).
Report of a two-year study conducted by a team from the National
Environmental Protection Agency and the State Planning Commission of China, the
World Bank, and the U.N. Development Program. Rapid economic growth in China
could lead to a three-fold increase in its greenhouse gas emissions between 1990
and 2020, but implementation of an array of mitigation options could cut this
increase in half. Reviews a range of options, paying particular attention to no
regrets actions, those whose benefits other than greenhouse gas mitigation
exceed project costs. Recommends the continuation and expansion of economic
reforms, accelerated implementation of no-regrets projects over the short to
medium term, and development of less carbon-intensive energy technologies over
the long term.
IKARUS: Instruments for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies, Fed.
Ministry of Education, Sci., Res. & Technol., 74 pp., 1995. Available from
Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Programmgruppe TFF, D-52425 Jülich,
Ger. (tel: 49 2461 613322; fax: 49 2461 612496).
Describes Germany's IKARUS project for developing tools for analyzing
national greenhouse gas reduction strategies.
Joint Implementation of Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Consideration
of Fiscal and Regulatory Incentives, A. Michaelowa, 166 pp., 1995, DM20.
Institute for Econ. Res., Neuer Jungfernsteig, D-20347 Hamburg, Ger. (tel: 49 40
3562479; fax: 49 40 351900).
Reviews joint implementation and the need for complementary fiscal or
Policy Dialogue Advisory Committee to Assist in the Development of
Measures to Significantly Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Personal Motor
Vehicles: Interim Report to the President, 15 pp., Mar. 1995. Prepared by
RESOLVE, Inc., 2828 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, D.C. Available on the
Internet at http:\\www.whitehouse.gov, or through the Greenhouse Gas Car
Dialogue on EPA's Technology Transfer Network Bulletin Board (919 541 5742).
Documents the progress to date of the committee, which has been meeting
since Sep. 1994 to contribute to the Clinton Administration's Climate Change
Action Plan. Its goal is to develop consensus on three sets of policies that
would, if adopted, most cost-effectively return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990
levels by the years 2005, 2015, or 2025, with no increase thereafter. The
committee's evaluation will be assisted by federal government economic analysts.
Energy Efficiency, Economic Development and Reduced Emissions: An
Action Plan for Minnesota, June 1995. Summary, 26 pp.; full report, 120 pp.
Available from Ctr. for Energy & Environ.
Presents a comprehensive guide to the most important and promising reduction
strategies for the state, based on a corresponding emission analysis (listed in
Reports/ ENergy-Emission Analyses, this issue--Nov. 1995). Of the 61 strategies
utilizing market incentives, regulatory changes, and education to improve energy
efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 19 measures are recommended to
policy makers as priority action strategies. Unlike most energy plans, this one
focuses on the economic benefits of the recommended actions and views the
environmental benefits as a direct outcome of greater efficiency.
Farming for a Better Environment, Mar. 1995, $15. Soil &
Water Conserv. Soc., 7515 NE Ankeny Rd., Ankeny IA 50021 (tel: 515 289 2331;
fax: 515 289 1227).
A chapter on soil carbon states that intensive tillage has led to losses of
soil carbon ranging from 30-50%. However, conservation tillage, currently used
on more than 35% of all planted acres in the U.S., can reduce the carbon
emissions from soils and may actually turn them into sinks. Another chapter
illustrates the fuel conservation benefits of conservation versus conventional
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations