February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1996
ENERGY POLICY & ECONOMICS
Three articles from
Energy Policy, 24(3), Mar. 1996:
"Energy Conservation in the Russian Manufacturing IndustryPotentials
and Obstacles," J.W. Fromme (DIC Deutche Industrie Consult GmbH,
Parsevalstr. 9b, 40468 Düsseldorf, Ger.), 245-252. Detailed analysis of a
recently privatized plant in the Urals shows that substantial energy
conservation could be achieved by local means at little or no cost. A general
lack of awareness stemming from traditional thinking and structures, compounded
by a lack of financing, constitutes some of the most important obstacles for
energy conservation in Russia.
"The Lifetime Pollution Implications of Various Types of Electricity
Generation. An Input-Output Analysis," J.L.R. Proops (Environ. Policy
Unit., Keele Univ., Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK), P.W. Gay et al., 229-237.
Examines the relative impacts of eight forms of electricity generation on the
emissions of three air pollutants (CO2, SO2 and NOx) throughout the
UK economy, through the entire generating station lifetime (construction,
operation and decommissioning). Each form of generation shows substantial
lifecycle emission reductions for all pollutants compared with "old coal"
technology, mostly in the operating phase.
"The Sixteenth World Energy Congress of the World Energy
Council, . .Tokyo, Japan, 8-13 October 1995," H. Khatib (Amman, Jordan)
275-277. A conference report by the World Energy Council's Honorary Vice
Chairman. Major recommendations are to phase out all energy subsidies, and to
shift attention to long-term global energy needs.
"Valuing the Benefits of Renewables," S. Awerbuch (50 Shelley Dr.,
Nashua NH 03062), Guest Editor, Energy Policy,
24(2), Feb. 1996. Contains the following titles:
"Editor's Introduction. The Problem of Valuing New Energy Technologies"
"Valuing the Flexibility of Alternative Sources of Power Generation"
"Distributed Generation. An Alternative to Electric Utility Investments
in System Capacity"
"Integrating Financial Theory and Methods in Electricity Resource
"Monte Carlo Simulation Techniques and Electric Utility Resource
"Informing Decision Makers and Identifying Niche Opportunities for
Windpower. . ."
"Evaluating the Economics of Photovoltaics in a Demand-Side Management
"A Marketing Orientation is the Key to a Sustainable Energy Future"
"Capital Budgeting, Technological Innovation and the Emerging
Competitive Environment of the Electric Power Industry"
"Solar Power and
Climate Change Policy in Developing Countries," T.E. Drennen (Prog. on
Ethics & Public Life, Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14853), J.D. Erickson, D.
Chapman, ibid., 24(1), 9-16, Jan. 1996.
Examines the economic competitiveness of photovoltaic (PV) systems and
concludes that even after including externality costs, without significant
technological breakthroughs, unsubsidized, widespread adoption of this
technology is unlikely in the near future. If the goal of PV transfer programs
is to limit greenhouse gas emissions, there are larger and cheaper opportunities
in industrialized countries.
Inequities Within Developing Countries: An Important Concern in the Global
Environmental Debate," T.A. Siddiqi (Prog. on Environment, East-West Ctr.,
1777 East-West Rd., Honolulu HI 96848), Global Environ. Change, 5(5),
447-454, Dec. 1995.
In many parts of the world, the energy disparities within countries are as
large as those between developing and industrialized countrieinequities
that need to be addressed much more explicitly. Describes differences in energy
use in South Asia between low income and middle class households for cooking,
transportation and electricity. These have implications in terms of the impact
of each group on the global environment, as well as on the local environment.
Two items in Energy
Policy, 23(2), Dec. 1995:
"Biomass Energy in North American Policies," D.L. Klass (Entech
Intl., 25543 W. Scott Rd., Barrington IL 60010), 1035-1048. Examines the role of
biomass energy in the federal government policies of Canada, Mexico and the U.S.
on the development and use of biomass energy. There are major barriers that must
be overcome if biomass is to displace large amounts of fossil fuels, including
development of large-scale systems that can supply biomass energy and biofuels
at competitive prices, and nationwide distribution systems that simplify
consumer access. Otherwise, biomass energy use will continue to rely on
governmental subsidies and will be limited to niche markets.
"Energy and Environment Policy Integration: The Case of Energy
Conservation Policies and Technologies in Japan," Y. Fukasaku (2 Ave.
Romand, F-92210 St.-Cloud, France), 1063-1076. Among OECD countries, Japan has
achieved one of the lowest energy intensities and has reduced CO2
and other emissions associated with energy use while maintaining a relatively
high rate of economic growth. This study shows that in both domains,
considerable importance was attached to the enhancement of energy conservation
by both industry and government. Recent responses to global environmental issues
show that Japanese technologies will continue to be "environmentally
Two items in Intl.
J. Hydrogen Energy, 20(12), Dec. 1995:
"Toward Sustainable Economic Growth: The Age of Energy Gases,"
R.A. Hefner III (GHK Co., 6305 Waterford Blvd., S. 470, Oklahoma City OK 73118),
945-948. To sustain economic growth, energy systems must increase economic
productivity and competitiveness, put more people to work, and reduce
environmental degradation. At the end of the 20th century, state-of-the-art
energy systems are in transition from liquid oil to (gaseous) methane/natural
gas. This new "Age of Energy Gases" will end with totally clean
hydrogen, using basically the same infrastructure as natural gas.
"Reformulated Gasoline: Cleaner Air on the Road to Nowhere," J.S.
Cannon (INFORM Inc., 120 Wall St., New York NY 10005), 987-994. U.S. legislation
that takes effect in 1995 requiring the sale of cleaner reformulated gasoline in
heavily polluted areas fails to take into account the world's dwindling reserves
of oil, the eroding economics of using oil, and the political and military costs
of maintaining access to non-domestic supplies. In contrast, natural gas offers
greater emission reductions than reformulated gasoline, at lower fuel costs and
with greater domestic supply and energy security. In the long term, the
expansion of an infrastructure that would support natural gas vehicles could
facilitate transition to hydrogen which, when produced from renewable sources,
could become the optimum fuel for a sustainable energy economy.
Several items in The
Electricity Journal, 8(10), Dec. 1995. (The Electricity Journal,
1501 Western Ave., S. 100, Seattle WA 98101.)
"The Energy Efficiency Challenge: Save the Baby, Throw out the
Bathwater," J.H. Chanberlin (Barakat & Chamberlin Inc.), P. Herman,
38-47. In the more competitive, restructured industry that is emerging,
electricity providers will need to build on what we have learned about
demand-side management in the past 15 years, focusing on providing information
and technical services and on individual customer needs.
"Ranking Electric Generating Technologies with External Costs,"
A.M. Freeman III (Econ. Dept., Bowdoin Coll., Maine), R.D. Rowe, 48-53. A
comprehensive study was performed in New York State to rank environmental
externality costs associated with electricity supply options. Early in the study
it was determined that there was insufficient information to establish a
defensible dollar value for damage from CO2 emissions.
"Technology as an Enabling Force in the Global Restructuring of the
Electric Power Industry," 54-77. Consists of contributions from five
panelists at the Aspen Institute's 1995 Summer Program on Energy, the
Environment and the Economy.
"The Option Value
of Renewable Energy. The Case of Climate Change," D. Schimmelpfennig (Econ.
Res. Service, Div. Natural Resour. & Environ., 1301 New York Ave. NW, Rm.
408, Washington DC 20005), Energy Economics,
17(4), 311-317, Oct. 1995.
Decision makers receive mixed signals from the investment literature on when
it is appropriate to develop renewable energy technology substitutes for fossil
fuels. Under certain assumptions, renewable energy alternatives are more
attractive than they appear on the basis of a net present value criterion that
ignores "option value." Option value represents the value of
flexibility to use or discard new technologies. Applies a model to analyze the
optimum investment time with respect to the climate treaty.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations