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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1996

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
POLICY AND ECONOMICS


Item #d96dec7

"Some Economic Aspects of Climate Change," Z.X. Zhang (Landbouwuniv. Wageningen, POB 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, Neth.), Intl. J. Environ. & Pollut., 6(2-3), 185-195, 1996.

Reviews developments in the topic for economists and those outside the field, focusing on consequences of climate change, damage estimates for a doubling of atmospheric CO2, and strategies for responding to climate change. Although great uncertainties do not justify a do-nothing stance, they make difficult the choice of response strategies. These are divergent and include: "do nothing" vs. "do something"; "no-regrets" vs. "regrets" policies; and limitation strategies vs. adaptation strategies. Faced with these diverging strategies, the "hedging" strategy of Manne and Richels would be favored because it avoids extreme and rigid mandates and pursues low-cost options first; adaptation is more readily achieved if it is needed.


Item #d96dec8

"The Geneva Conference: Implications for the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change," S.S. Dunn (Intl. Program, Natural Resour. Defense Council, 40 W. 20th St., New York NY 10011), Intl. Environ. Rptr., pp. 906-910, Oct. 2, 1996.

Summarizes the history of the climate treaty and discusses the outcome of the meeting of the Conference of Parties (Geneva, July 1996) and its significance for the FCCC. This meeting provided the first sign of an ability to adapt to new scientific and political developments. If the pace of climate science continues in the same direction, the FCCC will be forced to mature quickly. The next meeting (Kyoto, Japan, Dec. 1997) will prove to be a far more difficult coming of age for climate negotiations.


Item #d96dec9

Four related items from OPEC Bull., 27(8), Sep. 1996:

"GHG Cuts—A Ban for All Seasons? Industry Bodies Support OPEC in Opposing Drastic Action," p. 3. Reports on reaction in support of OPEC's statement at the July Conference of Parties. Also discusses an OPEC study that shows that the economies of its member countries will suffer the greatest damage, even more than will coal producers, from measures that limit fossil fuel demand. Massive compensation would be due because of this hardship.

"Monitoring Developments in the Field of Energy Use and the Environment," 6-7. Consists of the executive summary of the above-mentioned study on the relative vulnerability of fossil fuel net exporters to climate change mitigation measures.

"Focus: Relative Vulnerability of Fossil Fuel Net Exporters to Climate Change Mitigation Measures," 8-13. A special paper on this issue, showing how the analysis was done and discussing how gainers could compensate losers.

"OPEC Reacts Forcefully at Climate Change Meeting: Second Conference of the Parties [COP2], Geneva, July 8-19, 1996," 14-15, 62. Discusses events leading up to and during COP2, and OPEC's reactions to the meeting's disturbing outcome. This concern should not be misconstrued as detracting from OPEC's deeply held convictions about environmental harmony. It seeks a fair, rational and balanced approach to environmental issues.


Item #d96dec10

"The Reality of Implementing an International Convention: National Greenhouse Gas Inventories in Developing Countries," M.F. Price (Environ. Change Unit., Univ. Oxford, Mansfield Rd., Oxford OX1 3TB, UK), Global Environ. Change, 6(3), 193-203, July 1996.

Explores the challenges of implementing the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change in eight developing countries. Great care must be taken to develop greenhouse gas inventory methodologies that are appropriate for diverse situations. Substantial resources will be vital if developing countries are to have the capacity to collect the data necessary to develop appropriate policies.


Item #d96dec11

"Protecting the Earth's Ozone Layer," J.P. Krueger (Intl. Relations Dept., London Sch. of Econ. & Political Sci., Houghton St., London WC2A 2AE, UK), I.H. Rowlands, ibid., 245-247.

Briefly reviews the seventh Conference of Parties to the Montreal Protocol (Vienna, Dec. 1995), and highlights recent Protocol developments. Concludes that the dynamic nature of the Protocol provides the best hope for its success.


Item #d96dec12

"An Environmental Negotiation Strategy for the South," A. Najam (Dept. Urban Studies & Planning, Massachusetts Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), Intl. Environ. Affairs, 7(3), 249-287, Summer 1995.

North-South global environmental negotiations are increasingly becoming adversarial and confrontational, but an opportunity exists for the South to formulate a new strategy—based on its own experience and the principles of negotiation theory—that could better serve its environmental and developmental goals. This article analyzes the South's experience in international environmental negotiations since the 1972 Stockholm conference, showing that its continuing interest has been development, and its principle fear that the North is using environmental issues as an excuse to pull up the ladder of development. Proposes a strategy for the South based on negotiation theory that can be most simply described as "stop feeling angry at the North and sorry for yourself," which will ultimately benefit both sides. Describes eight specific elements of this approach, such as focusing on interests, not positions.


Item #d96dec13

"Of Oil and Rainforests: Using Commodity Cartels to Conserve Depletable Natural Resources," R.A. Madsen (McKinsey & Co., Palo Alto, Calif.), ibid., 207-234.

Explores this approach by first enumerating the basic conditions necessary for the formation of an effective cartel. Explains the importance of timing, using the history of the Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) as an example, and evaluates whether a commodity cartel could be used to protect tropical rainforests. Concludes that under certain circumstances, cartels do provide a useful tool.

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