February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1996
Reduction by Brake Energy Recovery," C. Jefferson (Faculty of Engineering,
Univ. of the West of England, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK), Atmos.
Environ., 30(1), i-ii, Jan. 1996.
Outlines an engineering analysis showing that recovery of the energy now
wasted in braking vehicles could make a significant contribution to CO2
abatement, and increase urban air quality.
Structural Changes and Energy Savings on Emission-Reduction Strategies for
Central and Eastern Europe," O. Rentz, (Inst. Industrial Production, Univ.
Karlsruhe, Hertzstr. 16, D-76187, Karlsruhe, Ger), A. Jattke et al., Energy,
20(12), 1181-1189, Dec. 1995.
Analyzes impacts on four countries (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and
Ukraine) using scenarios with differing final energy demands, assumed CO2
emission reductions, and country-specific factors. Results show that emission
reduction costs and potential pollution control measures differ significantly
from those in Western European countries, and differ among the four countries.
Economics," J.D. Broder (Biotech. & Bioremediation, Tenn. Valley
Authority, Muscle Shoals AL 35660), World Resour. Rev., 7(4),
560-569, Dec. 1995.
The use of biomass fuels reduces net CO2 emissions and avoids
methane emissions from landfilling biomass wastes. This paper compares the
economics of six biomass conversion systems. Research at the Tennessee Valley
Authority is aimed at improving the economic rate of return from investments in
biomass systems, which now runs as high as about 20%.
Two items from Energy,
20(11), Nov. 1995:
"Reducing CO2 Emissions by Substituting Biomass for Fossil
Fuels," L. Gustavsson (Dept. Environ. & Energy Sys. Studies, Lund Univ.
Gerdagatan 13, S-223 62 Lund, Swed.), P. Börjesson et al., 1097-1113.
Calculates the efficiency of substitution in terms of reduced CO2
emissions per unit of used land or biomass, and costs per ton of carbon.
Substituting biomass for fossil fuels is more cost effective in electricity and
heat production than in transportation; for transportation, methanol has the
lowest emission-reduction costs. Exploitation of biomass potential in Sweden
could eliminate over half the country's CO2 emissions.
"Carbon Dioxide Disposal in Carbonate Materials," K.S. Lackner
(Los Alamos Natl. Lab., MS B216, Los Alamos NM 87545), C.H. Wendt et al.,
1153-1170. Introduces a safe and permanent method of CO2 disposal
based on combining it chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable
carbonate minerals, in a reaction that requires little net energy. Preliminary
examination of two specific processes yields promising cost estimates.
Liquid CO2 in Seawater at High Pressures," Y. Fujioka (Nagasaki
R&D Ctr., Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, 5-717-1 Fukahori, Nagasaki City,
Nagasaki 851-03, Japan), K. Takeuchi et al., Intl. J. Energy Res., 19(8),
19,659-19,664, Nov. 1995.
Laboratory experiments suggest that a huge amount of liquid CO2
can be sequestered for a very long time if it is deposited at depths greater
than 3700 meters in the ocean.
"Regrets or No
RegretsThat is the Question: Is Conservation a Costless CO2
Mitigation Strategy?" A. Rose (Dept. Mineral Econ., Pennsylvania State
Univ., 221 Walker Bldg., Univ. Pk. PA 16802), S.-M. Lin, The Energy J.,
16(3), 67-87, 1995.
Energy conservation has been offered as a "no regrets" strategy
based on partial equilibrium analyses (those that consider isolated sectors of
the economy). This study is the first to examine impacts in a general
equilibrium analysis, and finds slightly negative effects on the U.S. economy
overall. Conservation may be a worthy mitigation strategy, but it should not be
oversold as costless.
Impacts of Sequestering Carbon Through Forestation," J. Englin (Dept.
Agric. Econ., Univ. Nevada, Reno NV 89557), J.M. Callaway, Clim. Change,
31(1), 67-78, Sep. 1995.
Examines the impacts of a carbon sequestration policy on environmental
amenities in existing Douglas-fir forests subject to logging. Amenities studied
include trout, wildlife diversity, visual aesthetics, soil stability, deer and
elk populations, and water yield. Finds that the effect of such a policy will
depend on the discount rate chosen.
Two items from World
Resour. Rev., 7(3), Sep. 1995:
"Energy Conservation as a Tool for Greenhouse Gas Abatement," Y.
ElMahgary (VTT-ENERGY, Finland), M.A-F. Shama et al., 347-357. Gives results of
a study undertaken by the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT), within the
framework of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, using both
bottom-up (engineering) and top-down (macroeconomic) analyses. The former found
most measures to be cost-effective; the latter found a direct positive effect on
the economy, in addition to that of emission control.
"Regional Growth Management Policies: Toward Reducing Global Warming at
State and Local Levels," J. Purdie (Ctr. for Real Estate Res., Washington
State Univ., Pullman WA 99164), 367-385. Addresses issues of growth management
and land use planning at the local, state, and regional levels that affect
global warming. Reviews existing programs and makes recommendations related to
urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns. Examines opportunities for
improved coordination between jurisdictions.
in the Forest Sector in Finland During 1990-2039," T. Karjalainen (Faculty
Forestry, Univ. Joensuu, POB 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Fin.), S. Kellomäki,
A. Pussinen, Clim. Change, 30(4), 451-478, Aug. 1995.
Investigates the carbon sequestration capacity of the forest sector in
Finland, by quantifying the stocks and fluxes of carbon in the stemwood of
forests and in forest-based products, under three scenarios of wood production.
The balance of carbon in wood products is analyzed with regard to its
sensitivity to changes in recycling, in the lifespan of products, in the rate of
landfill decay, and in the production capacity of the forest industry.
Energy SourcesA Solution to Global Warming in the Indian Context,"
C.S. Maji (Environ. Eng., MECON Ltd., Ranchi, Bihar, India), Energy Sources,
17(4), 459-475, July-Aug. 1995.
Reviews steps being taken by the government of India to promote
nonconventional energy sources. The use of such sources is not gaining ground as
expected in India, due to high initial costs; concerted efforts are needed to
achieve this goal.
Two items from Energy,
20(6), June 1995:
"CO2 Reduction Potential Through Nonconventional Energy
Sources in India," N.C. Gupta, V.K. Jain (Sch. Environ. Sci., J. Nehru
Univ., New Delhi 110 067, India), N.K. Bansal, 549-553. Presents CO2
emission rates based on actual fossil-fuel consumption over the past 20 years,
and discusses options for reducing future emissions. The use of non-conventional
sources could reduce India's energy-related CO2 emissions 11.8%
below 1988-1989 levels by the year 2005-2006.
"Cost of CO2 Reduction in Building Construction," P.
Tiwari (I. Ghandi Inst. of Develop. Res., Gen. Vaidya Marg, Goregaon (East),
Bombay 400 065, India), J. Parikh, 531-547. The construction sector accounts for
the highest share (17%) of CO2 emissions in the Indian economy,
because it uses highly energy-intensive materials and the need for shelter is
high. This study analyzes the opportunities and costs of reducing these
emissions, the techniques and materials that would be needed, and the impacts of
alternative technologies on employment in the construction industry.
Global Warming: Alternative Fuels and Other Options for Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Reduction," A.D. Sagar (A-11 Pushpanjarli, Vikas Marg, Delhi 100 092,
India), Environ. Impact Asses. Rev., 15(3), 241-274, May 1995.
Discusses the feasibility and desirability (from a technical as well as a
broader environmental perspective) of the large-scale production and use of
alternative fuels as a strategy to mitigate automotive CO2
emissions. Concludes that other options, such as improving vehicle efficiency
and switching to more efficient modes of passenger transportation, may be
preferable, in view of the limitations of currently available alternative fuels
and the technological and other constraints of potential future alternative
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Index of Abbreviations