February 28, 2007
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Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 7, JULY 1996
IMPACTS: IMPACTS ON ECOSYSTEMS
Modification and Vegetation Responses to Environmental Stress," R.F. Sage
(Dept. Botany, Univ. Toronto, Toronto ON M5S 3B2, Can.),
Global Change Biol., 2(2), 79-83, Apr. 1996.
Summarizes an international workshop (May 1995, Lake Tahoe, Calif.) with 31
presentations on the current understanding of the interacting effects on plants
and soils of: rising CO2 and drought, salinity, temperature,
nutrient deficiency, and ozone and UV-B stress. Consensus statements were
formulated on a number of questions, separately by one working group composed of
agricultural researchers, and by another consisting of natural systems
specialists. Both agreed that increasing land use by humans could easily obscure
direct responses of ecosystems to changing atmospheric conditions, and that this
factor must be incorporated into estimates of global change impacts.
and Growth Responses of Arctic Plants to a Field Experiment Simulating Climate
Change," F.S. Chapin III (Dept. Integrative Biol., Univ. California,
Berkeley CA 94720), G.R. Shaver, Ecology, 77(3), 822-840, Apr.
Manipulations of light, temperature, nutrients, and length of growing season
in directions to simulate global environmental change altered the biomass of the
four most abundant vascular plant species in tussock tundra of northern Alaska.
Discusss why the processes that are readily integrated at annual time steps
(shoot, growth, shoot mortality, allocation) were more useful than instantaneous
physiological measurements in predicting decadal vegetation changes.
of the Arctic Treeline Along the Eastern Coast of Hudson Bay," K.
Lescop-Sinclair (Dept. Biol., Univ. Laval, Ste.-Foy PQ G1K 7P4, Can.), S.
Payette, J. Ecol., 83(6), 929-936, Dec. 1995.
Although previous studies have examined the impact on trees of the general
warming in the Northern Hemisphere since the end of the 1800s, few have dealt
specifically with Arctic treeline shifts. This survey shows that the treeline
has been displaced about 12 km towards Hudson Bay over the period, most likely
as a result of the recent warming.
Body Size in the Woodrat over the Past 25,000 Years of Climate Change,"
F.A. Smith (Dept. Biol., Univ. New Mexico, Albuquerque NM 87131), J.L.
Betancourt, J.H. Brown, Science, 270(5244), 2012-2014, Dec. 22,
Microevolutionary changes in the body size of the bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma
cinerea) since the last glacial maximum were estimated from measurements of
fecal pellets preserved in paleomiddens in the western U.S. The changes closely
track regional temperature fluctuations simulated by a climate model, and those
estimated by isotope analysis, with body size increasing during times of
warming. By providing detailed temporal sequences of body sizes from many
locations, fossil woodrat middens permit precise quantification of responses to
climate change that have occurred in the past and may occur in the future.
Endangered Species Under Future Climate Change: From Single-Species Perservation
to an Anticipatory Policy Approach," C.A. Bloomgarden (Dept. Natural
Resour., Fernow Hall 312C, Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14853), Environ. Mgmt.,
19(5), 641-648, Sep.-Oct. 1995.
Discusses how anthropogenic climate change presents a unique challenge for
endangered species policy, and an opportunity for policy makers to develop a
more productive and robust approach to preserving the nation's biological
resources. The U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973 will not accomplish the task
as long as it remains focused on protecting species individually. The act must
not be abandoned, but should be reinforced by better integration of
scientific expertise into habitat and community preservation, and accomodation
to a longer-term perspective.
Arctic Tundra to Experimental and Observed Changes in Climate," F.S. Chapin
III (Dept. Integrative Biol., Univ. California, Berkeley CA 94720), G.R. Shaver
et al., Ecology, 76(3), 694-711, 1995.
Light, temperature and nutrients were manipulated in moist tussock tundra.
Some manipulations altered certain ecosystem properties in less than a decade,
showing that Arctic vegetation at this site is sensitive to climate change. In
general, short-term (three-year) responses were poor predictors of long-term
(nine-year) changes in community composition. During the nine-year study, which
coincided with the warmest decade on record in the region, biomass of one
dominant tundra species unexpectedly changed in control plots in the direction
predicted by these experiments and by Holocene pollen records. This suggests
that regional climatic warming may already be altering the species composition
of Alaskan Arctic tundra.
"The Effects of
Long-Term Elevation of Air Temperature and CO2 on Frost Hardiness of
Scots Pine," T. Repo (Faculty of Forestry, Univ. Joensuu, POB 111,
FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland), Plant, Cell & Environ.,
19(2), 209-216, Feb. 1996.
Studied 20- to 25-year-old saplings for two years. The risks of frost damage
are marked in the predicted climatic conditions in Finland, and depend on how
the occurrence of the frost episodes changes with respect to climatic warming
during the annual cycle, especially in autumn and spring. Conditions in
mid-winter are not thought to be critical for frost injury to trees in the
"Towards a Better
Experimental Basis for Upscaling Plant Responses to Elevated CO2 and
Climate Warming," Ch. Körner (Inst. Botany, Univ. Basel, CH-4056
Basel, Switz.), Plant, Cell & Environ., 18(10), 1101-1110,
Few of the most common assumptions used in modeling plant and ecosystem
responses to elevated CO2 and temperatures have been tested under
realistic life conditions. Identifies unexpected discrepancies between
predictions and experimental findings, which indicate that a better empirical
basis is required for predictions. Offers ten suggestions for improving our
ability to scale up from experimental conditions to the real world.
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