February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 7, JULY 1996
IMPACTS: IMPACTS ON HYDROLOGY
"The Great Lakes
Diversion at Chicago and Its Implications for Climate Change," S.A.
Changnon (Changnon Climatologist, Mahomet IL 61853), M.H. Glantz, Clim.
Change, 32(2), 199-214, Feb. 1996.
In 1900 the city of Chicago began diverting water from Lake Michigan to move
its sewage down the Illinois River, launching a series of continuing legal
challenges to Illinois from the federal government, various Great Lake states,
and Canada. This study uses periods of low lake levels during dry periods since
1900 as analogs for what might occur as a result of climate change from an
enhanced greenhouse effect. Changing socioeconomic factors will likely cause
increased water use and new priorities for water use, and future lower lake
levels will lead to conflicts related to existing and proposed diversionsconflicts
that will be exacerbated by the consequences of global warming.
Climate Change on Water Supplies in Mountainous Snowmelt Regions," A. Rango
(ARS, USDA, BARC-W, Bldg. 007, Rm. 104, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville MD
20705), World Resour. Rev., 7(3), 315-325, Sep. 1995.
Snowmelt runoff supplies a surprisingly large part of the water supply in
mountainous regions. In model simulations of a 4-5° C warming, the
beginning of snowmelt in North America advances by about a month and runoff
shifts from the summer to the winter, with winter runoff sometimes doubling.
Runoff in April and May, when water demands are low, is increased at the expense
of large decreases in June and July when water demands are high.
Hydrology," R.L. Wilby (Dept. Geog., Univ. Derby, Kedleston Rd., Derby DE22
1GB, UK), Prog. Phys. Geog., 19(3), 351-369, Sep. 1995.
Analyzes the potential sensitivity of water resources in the U.K. to
climatic change, using the anomalous climate and river flows of the 1988-1992
drought as an analogy. Discusses the hydrological processes at three model
scales with reference to global hydrology, regional downscaling and
"The Impact of
Climate Change on the River Rhine: A Scenario Study," J. Kwadijk (Dept.
Phys. Geog., Univ. Utrecht, POB 80.115, 308 TC Utrecht, Neth.), J. Rotmans, Clim.
Change, 30(4), 397-425, Aug. 1995.
Couples a climate assessment model and a water balance model to yield
estimates of impacts, which must be regarded as "best guesses" due to
large uncertainties. Changes in annual water availability are small; the Rhine
changes from a combined snowmelt-rainfed river to an almost entirely rainfed
river. The difference between the large average discharge in winter and small
average discharge in autumn increases, especially in the Alpine part of the
basin, and the frequency of both low- and high-flow events in the downstream
part of the River may increase. Changes could be larger than worst-case
scenarios used by Dutch agencies.
and the History of the Middle East," A.S. Issar (Water Resour. Res. Ctr.,
Sede Boker Campus, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, 84990 Israel), American
Scientist, 83, 350-355, July-Aug. 1995.
Reports on continuing research on the interaction between climate and
historical developments in the Middle East over the past 5,000 years, to see
what lessons for the future may emerge. This history may provide a unique
opportunity for understanding the impact of climate change in other parts of the
globe. Located in an intermediate zone between the arid and humid belts of the
world, the area's climatic history is known to have varied considerably during
the past 10,000 years; and the region has the benefit of a rich archeological
and historical record. The desiccation likely to strike many Mediterranean areas
in a warming climate might be offset by restoration of the vegetation that once
covered vast expanses of semi-arid zones, but much more hydrological research
must precede such an effort.
River Runoff in a Doubled CO2 Climate," S.C. Van Blarcum (U.S.
Air Force, 16 OSS/OGSW Hurlburt Field FL 32544), J.R. Miller, G.L. Russell, ibid.,
30(1), 7-26, May 1995.
Uses a global atmospheric model to calculate the monthly river flow for nine
major high-latitude rivers in North America and Asia. Mean annual precipitation
and river flow increase for all rivers, with increased outflow at the mouths
beginning earlier in spring and maximum outflow occurring about one month sooner
due to earlier snowmelt. Snowmass decreases for the Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers
in North America and for rivers in northwestern Asia, but increases for rivers
in northeastern Asia.
"Effects of a 2 ´
CO2 Climate on Two Large Lake Systems: Pyramid Lake, Nevada, and
Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming," S.W. Hostetler (USGS, ERL-C, 200 SW 35th St.,
Corvallis OR 97330), F. Giorgi, Global & Planetary Change, 10(1-4),
43-54, Apr. 1995.
The two lakes differ in settings and physical characteristics. Pyramid Lake,
a warm, monomictic, closed basin lake is in a warm, arid region. Yellowstone
Lake, a cold, dimectic open lake, is fed by numerous tributaries at high
altitude. For both lakes, a lake temperature model shows that although
evaporation increases, net water supplied also goes up from greater
precipitation. However, other changes contrast such that the water quality and
productivity may decline in Pyramid Lake but increase in Yellowstone Lake.
"The Impact of
Global Climate Anthropogenic Changes on Runoff in the Yenisei River Basin,"
A.I. Shiklomanov (Russian Arctic & Antarctic Sci. Res. Inst.), Russian
Meteor. & Hydrol., No. 2, 68-75, 1994.
Presents long-term observations on hydrometeorological characteristics for
the 1980s and preliminary results on variations in runoff due to temperature
increases of 1-2° C and 3-4° C. Paleoclimatic reconstructions of the
past warm epoch are assumed as scenarios for the future.
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