February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1996
Differences in Worldwide Emissions of Mercury to the Atmosphere," N.
Pirrone (Dept. Environ. Health, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), G.J.
Keeler, J.O. Nriagu, Atmos. Environ., 30(17), 2981-2987, Sep.
Presents calculations of emissions of mercury resulting from fossil fuel
combustion, solid waste incineration, industrial processes and other
anthropogenic sources over the last decade. Although global emissions peaked in
1989 and are currently decreasing at about 1.3% per year, emissions in
developing countries continue to rise steadily at a rate of 2.7-4.5% per year.
Solid waste incineration is the major source in much of the developed world;
coal combustion dominates in Asia and the former Soviet countries; mining and
smelting are the major sources in Oceania.
Greenhouse Effects of Tetrafluoromethane and Carbon Dioxide Emitted from
Aluminum Production," R.E. Weston Sr. (Chem. Dept., Brookhaven Natl. Lab,
POB 5000, Upton NY 11973), ibid., 30(6), 2901-2910, Aug. 1996.
Aluminum production is currently the major source of tetrafluoromethane
(CF4), an extremely stable gas with no natural sources that strongly absorbs
infrared radiation. Considerable amounts of CO2 are also produced
because of the large amounts of electrical energy required in Al production. The
radiative trapping of CF4 emitted during the period 1900-1985 is estimated to be
about one-third that resulting from the CO2 also emitted in the
process. However, modern methods result in much less CF4, a factor that
influences the long-term global warming effects of aluminum production. Removal
of CF4 from the atmosphere is also discussed.
Water-Level Drawdown on Global Climatic Warming: Northern Peatlands," J.
Laine (Dept. Forest Ecol., POB 24, FIN-00014 Univ. of Helsinki, Finland), J.
Silvola et al., Ambio, 25(3), 179-184, May 1996.
The world's extensive northern peatlands store large amounts of sequestered
carbon but also release considerable amounts of methane. The warmer and drier
summers currently predicted would affect these properties as well as CO2
and nitrous oxide emissions. This paper estimates these changes based on field
measurements, concluding that possible warming and drying from climate change
would decrease the impact of northern peatlands on total radiative
forcing over the next century by about 0.1 Watts/m2, in part because of
decreased methane emissions.
Impacts of Anthropogenic CH4 and N2O Emissions in
Finland," R. Pipatti (VTT Energy, POB 1606, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland), I.
Savolainen, J. Sinisalo, Environ. Mgmt., 20(2), 219-233,
Finnish CH4 emissions, mainly from landfills and animal
husbandry, are expected to decrease in the near future, while N2O
emissions, primarily from agriculture and the nitric acid industry, are expected
to increase with increased energy production and transportation. Of the two
gases, N2O is of greater concern because it has a longer atmospheric
lifetime and its emission control possibilities are limited.
Structure of Energy Consumption and Dynamics of Emission of Atmospheric Species
Related to the Global Environmental Change (SOx, NOx, and CO2) in
Asia," N. Kato (Iide-Sunkei Sabou Construction, Ogunimachi,
Nishickitamagun, Yamagata 999-13, Japan), Atmos. Environ.,
30(5), 757-785, Mar. 1996.
Presents a detailed survey of emissions by country and region for 1975 to
1987, with China and India divided into 42 regions for better resolution. The
combination of rapid development and heavy reliance on coal as an energy source
is resulting in a rapid rise in emissions.
Two items from Energy
Policy, 24(1), Jan. 1996:
"CO2 Emissions from Passenger Transport: A Comparison of
International Trends from 1973 to 1992," L. Scholl (Intl. Energy Studies,
Lawrence Berkeley Lab., 1 Cyclotron Rd. 90-4000, Berkeley CA 94720), L.
Schipper, N. Kiang, 17-30. Compares changes in energy use and CO2
emissions from passenger transport in nine OECD countries, using newly published
data covering vehicle activity, passenger travel, and fuel use by mode of
transport. Increased activity and modal shifts raised CO2 emissions
in every country except the U.S. The authors foresee continued increases in
travel and resulting emissions, and ask what could restrain CO2 in
the future, should stringent restraints become a clear policy goal.
"Population Growth and Global CO2 Emissions: A Secular
Perspective," T. Knapp (Dept. Econ., Pennsylvania State Univ., Lehman PA
18627), R. Mookerjee, 31-37. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to
establishing the underlying statistical relationship between human activities
and CO2 emissions. This paper explores the relationship between
global population growth and CO2 emissions based on annual data for
1880-1989, using a test of causality developed by Granger as well as more
comprehensive error correction and cointegration models. Results suggest the
lack of a long-term equilibrium relationship, but imply a short-term dynamic
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