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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1996

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS


Item #d96jun7

"Regional Differences in Worldwide Emissions of Mercury to the Atmosphere," N. Pirrone (Dept. Environ. Health, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), G.J. Keeler, J.O. Nriagu, Atmos. Environ., 30(17), 2981-2987, Sep. 1996.

Presents calculations of emissions of mercury resulting from fossil fuel combustion, solid waste incineration, industrial processes and other anthropogenic sources over the last decade. Although global emissions peaked in 1989 and are currently decreasing at about 1.3% per year, emissions in developing countries continue to rise steadily at a rate of 2.7-4.5% per year. Solid waste incineration is the major source in much of the developed world; coal combustion dominates in Asia and the former Soviet countries; mining and smelting are the major sources in Oceania.


Item #d96jun8

"Possible Greenhouse Effects of Tetrafluoromethane and Carbon Dioxide Emitted from Aluminum Production," R.E. Weston Sr. (Chem. Dept., Brookhaven Natl. Lab, POB 5000, Upton NY 11973), ibid., 30(6), 2901-2910, Aug. 1996.

Aluminum production is currently the major source of tetrafluoromethane (CF4), an extremely stable gas with no natural sources that strongly absorbs infrared radiation. Considerable amounts of CO2 are also produced because of the large amounts of electrical energy required in Al production. The radiative trapping of CF4 emitted during the period 1900-1985 is estimated to be about one-third that resulting from the CO2 also emitted in the process. However, modern methods result in much less CF4, a factor that influences the long-term global warming effects of aluminum production. Removal of CF4 from the atmosphere is also discussed.


Item #d96jun9

"Effect of Water-Level Drawdown on Global Climatic Warming: Northern Peatlands," J. Laine (Dept. Forest Ecol., POB 24, FIN-00014 Univ. of Helsinki, Finland), J. Silvola et al., Ambio, 25(3), 179-184, May 1996.

The world's extensive northern peatlands store large amounts of sequestered carbon but also release considerable amounts of methane. The warmer and drier summers currently predicted would affect these properties as well as CO2 and nitrous oxide emissions. This paper estimates these changes based on field measurements, concluding that possible warming and drying from climate change would decrease the impact of northern peatlands on total radiative forcing over the next century by about 0.1 Watts/m2, in part because of decreased methane emissions.


Item #d96jun10

"Greenhouse Impacts of Anthropogenic CH4 and N2O Emissions in Finland," R. Pipatti (VTT Energy, POB 1606, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland), I. Savolainen, J. Sinisalo, Environ. Mgmt., 20(2), 219-233, Mar.-Apr. 1996.

Finnish CH4 emissions, mainly from landfills and animal husbandry, are expected to decrease in the near future, while N2O emissions, primarily from agriculture and the nitric acid industry, are expected to increase with increased energy production and transportation. Of the two gases, N2O is of greater concern because it has a longer atmospheric lifetime and its emission control possibilities are limited.


Item #d96jun11

"Analysis of Structure of Energy Consumption and Dynamics of Emission of Atmospheric Species Related to the Global Environmental Change (SOx, NOx, and CO2) in Asia," N. Kato (Iide-Sunkei Sabou Construction, Ogunimachi, Nishickitamagun, Yamagata 999-13, Japan), Atmos. Environ., 30(5), 757-785, Mar. 1996.

Presents a detailed survey of emissions by country and region for 1975 to 1987, with China and India divided into 42 regions for better resolution. The combination of rapid development and heavy reliance on coal as an energy source is resulting in a rapid rise in emissions.


Item #d96jun12

Two items from Energy Policy, 24(1), Jan. 1996:

"CO2 Emissions from Passenger Transport: A Comparison of International Trends from 1973 to 1992," L. Scholl (Intl. Energy Studies, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., 1 Cyclotron Rd. 90-4000, Berkeley CA 94720), L. Schipper, N. Kiang, 17-30. Compares changes in energy use and CO2 emissions from passenger transport in nine OECD countries, using newly published data covering vehicle activity, passenger travel, and fuel use by mode of transport. Increased activity and modal shifts raised CO2 emissions in every country except the U.S. The authors foresee continued increases in travel and resulting emissions, and ask what could restrain CO2 in the future, should stringent restraints become a clear policy goal.

"Population Growth and Global CO2 Emissions: A Secular Perspective," T. Knapp (Dept. Econ., Pennsylvania State Univ., Lehman PA 18627), R. Mookerjee, 31-37. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to establishing the underlying statistical relationship between human activities and CO2 emissions. This paper explores the relationship between global population growth and CO2 emissions based on annual data for 1880-1989, using a test of causality developed by Granger as well as more comprehensive error correction and cointegration models. Results suggest the lack of a long-term equilibrium relationship, but imply a short-term dynamic relationship.

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