February 28, 2007
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FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1996
Methane from Paddy Fields and Cattle in India and Its Reduction at Source,"
T.K. Bandyopadhyay (Pollut. Control Div., Ministry of Environ., CGO Complex,
Lodi Rd., New Delhi 110003, India), P. Goyal, M.P. Singh,
Atmos. Environ., 30(14), 2569-2574, July 1996.
Quantifies Indian methane emissions from these two sources. Controlling
irrigation water is the key to controlling emissions from rice paddies: they are
reduced drastically if the field is dry for a few days at the end of tillering.
Several approaches for reducing emissions from livestock are also given.
Entrapped Methane from Wetland Rice Fields upon Soil Drying," H.A.C. Denier
van der Gon (Dept. Soil Sci., Agricultural, Univ. Wageningen, POB 37, 6700 AA
Wageningen, Neth.), N. van Breemen et al., Global Biogeochem. Cycles,
10(1), 1-7, Mar. 1996.
Emissions from Philippine rice paddies fertilized with either urea or green
manure were monitored for several weeks after harvesting the dry and wet season
crops of 1992. Flooded fields were allowed to dry by evaporation, and a steep
rise of emissions was observed in all plots just after the soil fell dry.
Results suggest that about 10% of the emissions of a full rice crop cycle is
released during the drying of fields, and must be included in estimates of total
emissions from rice agriculture.
Affecting Methane Emission from Rice Fields," H.U. Neue (Intl. Rice Res.
Inst., POB 933, Manila 1099, Philippines), R. Wassmann et al., Atmos.
Environ., 30(10/11), 1751-1754, May 1996.
Factors determining methane emissions from individual sites must be well
known in order to develop effective mitigation options which do not negate gains
in rice production. This paper reports field results concerning the influence on
emissions of a number of cultural practices, which may account for 20% of
overall seasonal emissions.
"Effect of Land
Use on the Rate of Methane Uptake by Surface Soils in Northern Europe,"
K.E. Dobbie (Soils Dept., SAC, Sch. Agric., W. Mains Rd., Edinburgh EH9 3JG,
UK), K.A. Smith et al., ibid., 30(7), 1005-1011, Apr. 1996.
Studies the effect of historical land use change on methane uptake by
aerobic soils through measurements on paired (forest and agricultural) sites in
three countries. The mean reduction in uptake rates resulting from conversion to
agriculture is 60%, higher than the amount reported for the effect of nitrogen
inputs through fertilization or deposition.
Atmospheric Methane Sources and Sinks," J. Bogner (Argonne Natl. Lab.,
Argonne IL 60439), K. Spokas et al., Chemosphere,
31(9), 4119-4130, Nov. 1995.
Describes controlled field measurements of methane emissions at sites in
Illinois and California using a closed-chamber technique. Surprisingly, at the
Illinois site in spring, the landfill surface was consuming atmospheric
methane rather than emitting landfill methane. Three independent methods
confirmed this result, which has profound implications for revision of landfill
contributions to global methane budgets, and suggests it should be possible to
develop mitigation strategies incorporating a combination of engineered and
natural methanotrophic controls.
from Paddy Soils Fertilized with Cowdung and Farmyard Manure," A. Banik, M.
Sen (Dept. Botany, Univ. Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, India), S.P. Sen, ibid.,
30(6), 1193-1208, Mar. 1995.
Field results show that methanogens present in cowdung and farmyard manure
contribute significantly to methane production in soil. Compared to unamended
soil, farmyard manure increased emissions through rice plants by about 80% over
the entire growth period.
Oxidation in Temperate Soils: Effects of Land Use and the Chemical Form of
Nitrogen Fertilizer," T.W. Wilson (Dept. Soil Sci., Rothamsted Experiment.
Sta., Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK), ibid., 539-546, Feb. 1995.
Results from long-term experimental sites show that land use and
agricultural management play important roles in mediating the sink strength of
aerobic soils for methane. Application of ammonium-N fertilizer to grassland
plots over 138 years caused a significant decrease in the soil sink strength,
but application of nitrate-N did not. Results are discussed in relation to land
use and microbial ecology.
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