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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d96may54

"Evidence of Large Scale Ozone Depletion Within the Arctic Polar Vortex 94/95 Based on Airborne LIDAR Measurements," M. Wirth (Inst. Phys. der Atmos., Münchner Str. 20, 82230 Wessling, Ger.), Geophys. Res. Lett., W. Renger, 23(8), 813-816, Apr. 15, 1996.

Measurements made during SESAME show that the ozone mixing ratio declined from the beginning of February to mid-March by about 50% throughout the polar vortex, in a sharply defined altitude band. Analysis shows that the decrease cannot be attributed to dynamic transport.

Item #d96may55

Two related items in Nature, 379(6565), Feb. 8, 1996:

"Satellite Confirmation of the Dominance of Chlorofluorocarbons in the Global Stratospheric Chlorine Budget," J.M. Russell III (NASA-Langley Res. Ctr., Hampton VA 23681), M. Luo et al., 526-529. The present concentration of ozone-destroying stratospheric chlorine is more than five times that expected from known natural emissions from the oceans and from biomass burning, yet the political sensitivity of the ozone depletion issue has generated a re-examination of the evidence. This paper reports a four-year global time series of satellite observations of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride in the stratosphere, which shows conclusively that releases of CFCs—rather than other anthropogenic or natural emissions— are responsible for the recent global increases in stratospheric chlorine concentrations. The results implicate CFCs beyond a reasonable doubt as dominating ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere.

"There's Safety in Numbers," W. Brune (Dept. Meteor., Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Pk. PA 16802), 486-487. Discusses how the previous paper strengthens the already powerful scientific case that underlies the Montreal Protocol.

Item #d96may56

"The Effects of Tropical Cirrus Clouds on the Abundance of Lower Stratospheric Ozone," A.E. Dessler (Code 916, NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), K. Minschwaner et al., J. Atmos. Chem., 23(2), 209-220, Feb. 1996.

Calculations show the significant effect of high cirrus clouds on the net radiative heating of the tropical lower stratosphere, which influences the amount of ozone calculated. Concludes that calculated ozone is sensitive to the inclusion of clouds in models.

Item #d96may57

"Bromine-Chlorine Coupling in the Antarctic Ozone Hole," M.Y. Danilin (Atmos. & Environ. Res. Inc., 840 Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA 02139), N.-D. Sze et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(2), 153-156, Jan. 15, 1996.

Model calculations show that ozone destruction by chlorine increases as bromine levels decrease in the lower stratosphere. This finding has implications for the control of anthropogenic compounds to reduce ozone loss. Further modeling and measurements are needed to clarify this relationship.

Item #d96may58

"On the Relationship Between the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, Total Chlorine and the Severity of the Antarctic Ozone Hole," N. Butchart (Meteor. Off., London Rd., Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SZ, UK), J. Austin, Quart. J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 122, 183-217, Jan. 1996 (Part A).

Explores this relationship with a 3-D model of the dynamics and radiation of the stratosphere and mesosphere, finding that the influence of the oscillation is considerable. Makes the general conclusion that in the more sensitive conditions of low chlorine levels, current models may oversimplify the representation of heterogeneous processes, so we cannot be certain for what future atmospheric conditions the ozone hole will disappear until models are able to simulate accurately the historical onset of the hole.

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