February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 10, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1997
CORAL REEFS AND GLOBAL CHANGE
Special issue: Global Change Biol., 2(6), Dec. 1996.
Consists of seven invited, peer reviewed papers, edited by Paul Falkowski
(Brookhaven Natl. Lab, Upton NY 11973), one of this journal's editors.
"Reefs Happen," R.A. Kinzie III (Inst. Marine Biol., POB 1946,
Kane'ohe HI 96744; e-mail: rkinzie@zoogate. zoo.hawaii.edu), R.W. Buddemeier,
A brief, selective introduction intended to convey the biological complexity
and biogeochemical significance of corals and reefs, and to give a sense of our
level of ignorance and of the importance of unresolved fundamental questions.
"Coral Reef Bleaching: Facts, Hypotheses and Implications,"
P.W. Glynn (Rosenstiel Sch. Marine & Atmos. Sci., Univ. Miami, 4600
Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami FL 33149; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), 495-509.
Present evidence suggests that the leading factors responsible for
large-scale bleaching are elevated sea temperatures and high solar irradiance
(especially UV), which may frequently act jointly.
"Marine Pollution and Coral Reefs," Z. Dubinsky (Dept. Life
Sci., Bar Ilan Univ., Ramat Gan 52900, Israel; e-mail: F61119@BARILAN), 511-526.
"Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation [UVR] on Corals and Other Coral
Reef Organisms," J.M. Shick (Dept. Zoology, 5751 Murray Hall, Univ. Maine,
Orono ME 04469; e-mail: email@example.com), M.P. Lesser, P.L. Jokiel,
Interest in this topic heightened because of the loss of stratospheric
ozone. This review of the effects of UVR on corals and other reef macroorganisms
concludes that even small anthropogenic increases in UVB levels will have
sublethal physiological manifestations. But they will have relatively small
impact on the distribution of corals and reefs, perhaps affecting their minimum
depths of occurrence.
"Global Change and Coral Reefs: Impact on Reefs, Economies and Human
Cultures," C.R. Wilkinson (Australian Inst. Marine Sci., PMB 3, Townsville
MC, Queensland 4810, Australia), 547-558.
Coral reefs will cope well with predicted sea level rises of 4.5 cm per
decade, but reef islands will not. The greatest impact of climate change will be
a synergistic enhancement of direct anthropogenic stresses, which currently
cause most damage to coral reefs. Reefs have considerable recovery powers and
losses can be minimized by effective management of direct human impacts and
reducing indirect threats of global climate change.
"Reef Coral Diversity and Global Change," N.E. Chadwick-Furman
(Interuniversity Inst. for Marine Sci., POB 469, Eilat, Israel; e-mail:
At predicted rates of climate change in the near future, coral reef
ecosystems are likely to survive. Increases in sea level may benefit corals and
lead to regional increases in diversity. The largest threats to coral diversity
are regional anthropogenic impacts, which may interact with global climate
change to exacerbate rates of local species extinctions.
"Coral Skeletons: Storage and Recovery of Environmental Information,"
D.J. Barnes (Australian Inst. Marine Sci., PMB 3, Townsville MC, Queensland
4810, Australia), J.M. Lough, 569-582.
The tropics have few proxy climate records, but the annual density bands in
skeletons of long-lived, massive corals promise high-resolution proxy climate
records for tropical oceans. This potential has not been fully realized, because
corals seemed to yield inconsistent, sometimes conflicting information. Several
records are examined which indicate that corals can, in fact, be used for
reconstruction of environmental information.
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