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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 10, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1997

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
MITIGATION


Item #d97feb15

Special Issue: Ambio, 25(4), June 1996. Consists of 17 papers based on a regional workshop organized by the U.S. Country Studies Program (Seoul, Korea, Sep. 1995.) The first paper, summarized below, gives an overview; only citations are given for the remaining papers.

"Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory and Mitigation Strategies for Asian and Pacific Countries: Summary of Workshop and Working Group Discussions," H. Lee (Korea Energy Econ. Inst., 665-1 Naeson-Dong, Euiwang-Si, Kyunggi-Do, Korea 437-082), D. Zhou et al., 220-228.

The workshop was convened to present results of inventory and mitigation assessment; to discuss methods and data issues; to facilitate exchange of knowledge among experts; and to build consensus for efforts among Asian and Pacific countries. This paper summarizes presentations and working group discussions in three areas: energy, forestry, and methane. Implementation of effective mitigation projects in the future requires establishing criteria for selection, promotion of insititutional awareness, and acquisition of funding. One way for a country to proceed is to assemble a team of in-country experts, including scientists, policy-makers, financiers, and people from the private sector. Joint implementation is also an option, where appropriate.

"Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Use of Fossil Fuels in Asia: An Overview," T.A. Siddiqi (Environ. & Natural Resour. Mgmt. Div., UN ESCAP, UN Bldg., Rajadamnern Ave., Bangkok 10200, Thailand), 229-232.

"Assessing Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options for the Thai Power Sector," D. Intarapravich (1297 Paula Dr., Honolulu HI 96816), 233-239.

"The Modelling of Policy Options for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in India," P.R. Shukla (Indian Inst. of Mgmt., Ahmedabad, India 380015), 240-248.

"Technology Options for CO2 Mitigation in China," H. Jiankun, Z. Aling, Y. Yong, 249-253. For all authors: Energy Sci. Bldg., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing 100084, China.

"Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in the Energy Sector of Mongolia: Initial Results," J. Dorjpurev, D. Battsend, 254-257. For both authors: Energy Conservation Co., Ministry of Energy, Geology & Mining, Ulaanbaatar 46, Baga toiruu 6, Mongolia.

"Scenarios of Future Energy Demand and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Republic of Korea," Y. Jung (Korea Energy Econ. Inst., 665-1 Naeson-Dong, Euiwang-Si, Kyunggi-Do, Korea 437-082), 258-262.

"Costs of Reducing Carbon Emissions from the Energy Sector: A Comparison of China, India and Brazil," J. Sathaye, P. Monahan, A. Sanstad, 262-266. For all authors: Energy Analysis Program, Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Lab., MS 90-4000, Berkeley CA 94720.

"Converting Terrestrial Ecosystems from Sources to Sinks of Carbon," R.A. Houghton (Woods Hole Res. Ctr., POB 296, Woods Hole MA 02543), 267-272,

"Mitigation Potential of Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Management of Forests in Asia," S. Brown (Natl. Health & Environ. Effects Res. Lab., US EPA, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis OR 97333), 273-278.

"Tropical Forestry Practices for Carbon Sequestration: A Review and Case Study from Southeast Asia," P. Moura-Costa (COPEC, POB 71850, Los Angeles CA 90071), 279-283.

"Carbon Storage and Sequestration in the Russian Forest Sector," O.N. Krankina (Dept. Forest Sci., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis OR 97331), M.E. Harmon, J.K. Winjum, 284-288.

"Mitigation Options for Methane Emission from Rice Fields in Korea," Y.-K. Shin, S.-H. Yun et al., 289-291. For both authors: Dept. Agro-Environ., Natl. Agricultural Sci. & Technol. Inst., 249 Seodundong, Suwon, 441-707 Korea.

"An Estimation of Methane Emissions from Agricultural Activities in China," D. Hongmin, L. Erda et al., 292-296. For both authors: Agrometeor. Inst., Chinese Acad. of Agricultural Sci., 30 Baishiqiao Rd., Beijing 100081, China.

"The Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Mongolia," D. Dagvadorj, M. Munkhtsetseg, 297-299. For both authors: Hydrometeor. Res. Inst., Khudaldaany gud. 5, Ulaanbataar 210646, Mongolia.

"An Inventory of Gas Emissions in Bangladesh: Initial Results," A.U. Ahmed (Bangladesh Ctr. for Advanced Studies, House 620, Road 10(A), Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209, Bangladesh), K. Islam, M. Reazuddin, 300-303.

"Creating an Inventory of Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Japan: A Comparison of Two Methods," Y. Kondo, Y. Moriguchi, H. Shimizu, 304-308. For all authors: Natl. Inst. for Environ. Studies, 16-2 Onogawa Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 Japan.


Item #d97feb16

"Potential for Carbon Sequestration in European Soils: Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Using Results from Long-Term Experiments," P. Smith (Soil Sci. Dept., IACR-Rothamsted, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK; e-mail: pesmith@bbsrc.ac.uk), D.S. Powlson et al., Global Change Biology, 3(1), 67-79, Feb. 1997.

Uses statistical relationships derived from long-term European experiments to explore the potential of five scenarios: amendment of arable soils with animal manure or sewage sludge; incorporation of cereal straw into soils; afforestation of surplus arable land through natural regeneration; and a shift to less-intensive use of agricultural land through increased animal grazing. Concludes that, although efforts in temperate agriculture can contribute to global carbon mitigation, the potential is small compared to that available through reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions by halting tropical and sub-tropical deforestation, or by reducing fossil fuel burning.


Item #d97feb17

"Urban Reactions to the Global Warming Issue: Agenda Setting in Toronto and Chicago," W.H. Lambright (Ctr. Environ. Policy, Maxwell School, Univ. Syracuse, Syracuse NY 13244), S.A. Chagnon, L.D.D. Harvey, Clim. Change, 34(3-4), 463-378, Nov.-Dec. 1996.

Global warming is a new issue for cities and most are only dimly aware of its possible effects. However, municipal global warming networks are emerging. Toronto has become a pioneer in developing an urban response program; Chicago has an awareness of the possible negative impacts and is moving forward in several areas. These cities illuminate the policy-making process and the role "policy entrepreneurs" can play. To compare these cities, the authors used a common model of policy development for municipal response.


Item #d97feb18

"Abatement of Methane Emissions from Landfills - The German Way," G. Angerer (Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems & Innovation Res., Breslauer Str. 48, D-76139 Karlsruhe, Ger.), H. Kalb, World Resource Review, 8(3), 311-320, Sep. 1996.

In Germany one-quarter to one-third of the total methane emissions originate from solid waste landfills. The Technical Directive on Municipal Waste (TA Siedlungsabfall) took effect in 1993 and requires that starting in the year 2005, all waste disposed in landfills must be inert. This paper summarizes a recent study of the effects of this policy, which shows that landfill methane emissions will have decreased to 20% of present level by 2015.


Item #d97feb19

Two items in Ambio, 25(5), Aug. 1996:

"Greenhouse Impact of the Finnish Forest Sector Including Forest Products and Waste Management," K. Pingoud (VTT Energy, POB 1606, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland), I. Savolaien, H. Seppälä, 318-326. This comprehensive analysis shows that the biomass of the forest ecosystem and amount of forest products in use are increasing, and are acting as net carbon sinks. However, this sink is largely negated by fossil emissions from the forest industry and its transportations, and by methane from waste management. Waste-management practices are a major factor in mitigating the greenhouse impact of the forest sector.

"Carbon Sequestration Through Afforestation: Role of Tropical Industrial Plantations," M. Dabas (M-93, Salset, New Delhi 110017, India), 327-330. Carbon sequestration by trees is much faster in the tropical belt compared to the temperate latitudes, but net sequestration there is small because the wood is used primarily as fuel. Most of the wood manufacturing industries are in temperate latitudes, and despite excellent growing conditions and extensive tracts of underutilized land, Asia, Latin America and Africa are net importers of wood products, which are experiencing increased demand. Argues that industrial plantations in the tropics would be efficient and economically viable means of sequestering CO2, but land-use and other policies must be changed before the necessary investment will be stimulated.


Item #d97feb20

"The Biosphere Is Going Deep," W.S. Fyfe (Dept. Earth Sci., Univ. Western Ontario, London ON N6A 5B7, Can.; e-mail: mmcmahon@julian.uwo.ca), Science, 273(5274), 448, July 26, 1996.

A perspective on new discoveries concerning biological processes at depths up to hundreds of meters below the Earth's surface. These processes open a host of new technological opportunities, including subterranean disposal of CO2, and sulfur and nitrogen oxides from fossil fuel combustion.


Item #d97feb21

"Partnerships to Reduce Greenhouse Emissions in the Baltic," R.E. Löfstedt, K. Sepp, L. Kelly, Environment, 38(6), 16-20, 40-42, July-Aug. 1996.

Examines the unexpected consequences of joint implementation projects that convert aging district heating boilers to biomass in southeastern Estonia. The situation demonstrates how little attention has been paid to the long-term social and economic impacts of introducing new energy technologies, and how the world economy can drastically influence local sustainable energy strategies. It also shows how Western environmental strategies can in some cases detrimentally affect other nation's environments. The benefits and drawbacks of joint implementation need to be addressed further.


Item #d97feb22

"Effect of Water Management on Methane Emission from a Japanese Rice Paddy Field: Automated Methane Monitoring," K. Yagi (Natl. Inst. of Agro-Environ. Studies, 3-1-1 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 Japan), H. Tsuruta et al., Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10(2), 255-267, June 1996.

Field experiments indicate that short-term draining compared with continuous flooding strongly reduces emissions, and that improved water management can be one of the most important mitigation strategies for methane emissions from rice paddy fields.


Item #d97feb23

"Assessing Long-Term Impacts of Increased Crop Productivity on Atmospheric CO2," J. Cavazzoni (Dept. Biol., New York Univ., 34 Stuyvesant St., New York NY 10003), T. Volk, Energy Policy, 24(5), 403-411, May 1996.

Uses a system approach that considers long-term soil carbon changes and fossil fuel energy inputs to show that increased crop productivity will alleviate CO2 emissions, primarily by preventing additional land clearing for cultivation. By avoiding clearing land, high yield crop systems also preserve natural ecosystems.


Item #d97feb24

"Adjusting to Climate Change in the Lower Mekong," J.W. Jacobs (Dept. Geog., Texas A&M Univ., College Sta. TX 77843), Global Environ. Change, 6(1), 7-23, Apr. 1996.

The Mekong Committee is the principal institution for international water resource planning in the Lower Mekong River basin, and is likely to play several important roles in helping the people of the region adjust to any future changes in climate. As a result of conflict and low funding in the past few decades, water resource development has been relatively slow in the region. This situation may eventually prove to be an asset by having provided time to consider adjustments to future regional climate variability and change.

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