February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 10, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 1997
The Right Choice at the Right Time, Sep. 1997 (Environ. Canada).
Concludes that the costs of implementing the Montreal Protocol ($235
billion) are less than the benefits it will yield ($459 billion). Examines
the period between 1987, when the Protocol was signed, and 2050-60, the
time when ozone levels in the upper atmosphere are expected to return to
near normal. There will be fewer cases of skin cancer and cataracts, and
the fisheries, agricultural, forestry and building sectors will also
benefit from reduced exposure to UV radiation. Costs of implementation are
lower than expected because of technological developments.
Production and Consumption of Ozone-Depleting Substances 1986-1995:
The Data Reporting System Under the Montreal Protocol, German Agency
for Technical Cooperation, 110 pp., Sep. 1997, no charge (GTZ).
Reviews data through 1995 reported to the Ozone Secretariat. While
production and consumption of CFCs and halons have declined rapidly in
developed countries, they have increased significantly in developing
countries. Consumption there appears to be far higher than assumed in the
1994 assessment, leading to the possibility that ozone layer recovery may
be delayed beyond the expected date. (See Intl. Environ. Rptr.,
pp. 820-821, Sep. 3, 1997.)
International Environment: Operations of the Montreal Protocol
Multilateral Fund (T-RCED-97-218), U.S. General Accounting Off., July
1997, no charge (GAO).
Reviews operations of the Fund from its establishment in 1991 through
May 1997. It has allocated about $570 million for projects in over 100
developing countries, with the largest shares going to China (26%) and
India (7%). Most moneys have provided investments for converting business
operations from the use of ozone-depleting substances. The U.S. is the
largest contributor (about 25%).
CFC Smuggling in the European Union, Environ. Investigation
Agency, Sep. 1997, no charge (EIA).
EIA, an independent environmental advocacy group, has demonstrated the
seriousness of the problem by setting up a fictitious company that
actually made deals to purchase illegal CFCs. The contraband CFCs mainly
originate from Russia, which does not currently comply with the Montreal
Protocol, and from China and India, which have until 2010 to halt
production. The group recommends a ban on any sales of CFCs within the EU
(recycled as well as virgin), and closure of exemptions and loopholes. In
February, EIA also released Out in the Cold--The EU and the Need for
Action Against CFC Smuggling, which blames bureaucratic confusion in
the EU for much of the problem.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations