February 28, 2007
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FROM VOLUME 10, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1997
ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS - CARBON
"Carbon Emissions and Sequestration by Forests: Case Studies of
Developing Countries," P.M. Fearnside (Natl. Inst. for Res. in the
Amazon-INPA, CP 478, 69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; e-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org),Clim. Change, 35(3), 263, Mar. 1997.
A brief editorial introducing the following three papers, which give
some results from a project coordinated by the Lawrence Berkeley
Laboratory and funded by the U.S. EPA, and intended to quantify emissions
from tropical forests and evaluate strategies to reduce them. These very
country-specific studies are far better than cruder estimates, which still
predominate in discussions of the role of tropical forests in global
"Carbon Emissions from Mexican Forests: Current Situation and
Long-Term Scenarios," O.R. Masera (Ctr. Ecol., Univ. Nacional México-UNAM,
Ado Post. 152, Pátzcuaro, Michoacan 61609, Mexico), M.J. Ordóñez,
R. Dirzo,Clim. Change, 35(3), 265-295, Mar. 1997.
Derives estimates for 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios to 2025,
for both tropical and temperate closed forests. Deforestation in the
mid-1980s resulted in annual net emissions corresponding to 40% of
Mexico's total carbon emissions. Forest sector carbon emissions in 2025
remain positive in the reference scenario, but could become negative if a
number of policy changes discussed here are adopted.
"Carbon Flow in Indian Forests," N.H. Ravindranath (Ctr. Ecol.
Sci. & ASTRA, Indian Inst. Sci., Bangalore 560012, India), B.S.
Somashekhar, M. Gadgil,Clim. Change, 35(3), 297-320, Mar.
For the reference year 1986, estimates that gross emissions from
deforestation plus committed emissions from deforestation in previous
years are balanced by carbon sequestration from tree plantations and
existing forest. This balance is expected to continue under a "business
as usual" scenario through the year 2011.
"Greenhouse Gases from Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: Net
Committed Emissions," P.M. Fearnside (address above),Clim. Change,
35(3), 321-360, Mar. 1997.
Proposes an approach for analyzing the greenhouse gas contribution of
deforestation. It relies on net committed emissions, or the emissions and
uptake that will occur as deforested landscape approaches a new
equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns.
"Potential CO2 Emissions in the Netherlands Due to Carbon
Storage in Materials and Products," D.J. Gielen (Netherlands Energy
Res. Foundation, POB 1, 1755 ZG Petten, Neth.), Ambio, 26(2),
101-106, Mar. 1997.
Potential emissions refers to carbon stored in material like plastics,
which is only released to the atmosphere upon combustion. Potential
emissions are a problem for the IPCC approach to calculating national
emissions, which ignores international trade, because this release may
occur in a different country, long after the material is manufactured. The
problem is illustrated by calculations for The Netherlands, which produces
and exports a relatively large quantity of synthetic organic materials.
"Comparison of Energy Sources in Terms of Their Full Energy Chain
Emission Factors of Greenhouse Gases," J.F. van de Vate
(Schoenbergingel, NL-6881 NL Velp, Neth.),Energy Policy, 25(1),
1-6, Jan. 1997.
Deals with methodologies and databases for comparing emissions from
different sources, based largely on an international experts workshop
(Beijing, 1994). Findings and recommendations cover such topics as time
horizon, plant life time, materials flows, and system output
"A 1° x 1° Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from
Fossil Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, 1950-1990," R.J.
Andres (Inst. Northern Eng., Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks AK 99775; e-mail:
email@example.com), G. Marland et al.,Global Biogeochem. Cycles,
10(3), 419-429, Sep. 1996.
National estimates of carbon emissions were combined with 1° x 1°
data sets of political units and human population densities to create this
new data set. The data show continual growth with time over most of the
world, especially in urban areas, and a slow southerly shift of emissions
as Asian countries increase their energy consumption. The digital data
sets are available by anonymous ftp.
"A Carbon Budget for Brazil: Influence of Future Land-Use Change,"
P. Schroeder (ManTech Environ. Res. Corp., US EPA, 200 SW 35th St.,
Corvallis OR 97333),Clim. Change, 33(3), 369-383, July
Develops an estimate of Brazil's biotic CO2-C budget for the
period 1990-2010, using a spreadsheet accounting model based on three
major components: a conceptual model of ecosystem C cycling; a recently
completed satellite-based vegetation classification; and published
estimates of C density for each of the vegetation classes. Three
alternative projections of land-use change through 2010 show Brazil to be
a C source in the range of 3-5 ´ 10-9 MgC.
"Natural and Anthropogenic Changes in Atmospheric CO2
over the Last 1000 years from Air in Antarctic Ice and Firn," D.M.
Etheridge (Div. Atmos. Res., CSIRO, PMB 1, Aspendale, Vic. 3195,
Australia), L.P. Steele et al., J. Geophys. Res., 101(D2),
4115-4128, Feb. 20, 1996.
Analysis of air enclosed in three ice cores from Law Dome, Antarctica,
show preindustrial CO2 mixing ratios in the range 275-284 ppm,
with lower levels during 1550-1800 A.D., probably as a result of colder
global climate. Major CO2 growth occurred over the industrial
period except during 1935-1945 A.D., when CO2 mixing ratios
stabilized or decreased slightly, probably as a result of natural
variations of the carbon cycle.
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