February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 11, NUMBER 8, AUGUST 1998
MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE
Natural Resource Management in Mitigating Climate Impacts: The
Example of Mangrove Restoration in Vietnam, N. H. Tri (Mangrove
Ecosystem Research Division, Centre for Natural Resources Management and
Environmental Studies, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam), W. N.
Adger, P. M. Kelly,Global Environmental Change 8 (1) 49-61
The authors hold up and analyze the rehabilitation of a mangrove
ecosystem in Vietnam as an example of a management strategy to protect
coastal resources against present-day hazards while overcoming the
uncertainty in the threat from climate change. The rehabilitation was
justified on the basis of enhancing sea-defense systems, and analysis
showed that the actions were economically desirable based on the
direct-use benefits gained by local communities. Indirect benefits also
accrued in the form of avoided costs for maintaining sea dikes that the
mangrove stands effectively protect from storm damage.
Options for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Chinese
Industrial Sector, J. B. London (Dept. Planning and Landscape
Architecture, 143 Lee Hall, Clemson Univ., Clemson, S.C., 29634), Li
Junfeng, W. A. Ward, G. J. Wells, Dai Yande, Liu Jingru,Energy Policy
26 (6), 477-485 (1998).
Twenty-five case studies of Chinese industries were undertaken to assess
the possibilities for applying high-return conservation technologies to
reduce CO2 emission. In 13 of the 25 cases, the calculated
environmental benefits were valued at more than the costs of the
mitigating technology, and 19 had positive net benefits to the
environment, although not all outweighed the cost of implementing the
mitigative action. The authors concluded that the study suggests
that targeted investments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can produce a
large number of no-regrets outcomes and concluded that institutional
arrangements must be improved to facilitate the implementation of
environmentally benign development technology.
The Embodied Energy of Food: The Role of Diet, D. A. Coley
(Centre for Energy and the Environment, Physics Bldg., Univ. Exeter,
Exeter, EX4 4QL, UK), Emma Goodliffe, Jennie Macdiarmid,Energy Policy
26 (6), 455- 459 (1998).
Developed countries invest large amounts of energy in the agricultural,
transportation, and retail sectors to provide food to their populations.
The authors estimated the width of the distribution of the embodied
energies of British diets and found the mean and standard deviation of
that distribution to be large, indicating that a potential exists for
reducing greenhouse-gas emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels
simply by changing the foods consumed.
Environmental and Electricity Planning Implications of Carbon Tax
and Technological Constraints in a Developing Country, R. M.
Shrestha (Asian Inst. of Technol., P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani,
12120, Thailand), Rabin Shrestha, S. C. Bhattacharya,Energy Policy
26 (7), 527-533 (1998).
An analysis of the effects of interfuel and technology substitution on
the price elasticity of electricity indicated that a low carbon tax may
not be effective in reducing CO2 emissions, regardless of
technological restrictions. Moreover, the electricity industry would run
out of interfuel and technology substitutions, leaving the effectiveness
of CO2 mitigation depending mainly on the demand-side
Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction Scenarios in Mexico for Year 2005:
Industrial Cogeneration and Efficient Lighting, C. Sheinbaum (Inst.
Ing., UNAM. Apdo. Postal 70-472, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico D.F.), I.
Jauregui, L. Rodriguez V.,Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for
Global Change 2 (4), 359-372 (1997-1998).
The effects of efficient lighting in the commercial and residential
sectors and of cogeneration in the industrial sector were analyzed to see
what influences they might have on Mexican energy demand and CO2
emission for the year 2005. The analysis showed that these technologies
are cost-effective and together could reduce Mexican CO2
emissions by almost 13%. Although the installation and use of efficient
lighting is already a part of the electric utilitys demand-
side-management program, important barriers still hinder the adoption of
large-scale cogeneration plants.
Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Strategies in Mitigating the
Greenhouse Impact of Waste Management in Three Communities of Different
Size, Riitta Pipatti (VTT Energy, P.O. Box 1604 FIN-02044 VTT,
Espoo, Finland), Margareta Wihersaari,Mitigation & Adaptation
Strategies for Global Change 2 (4), 337-358 (1997-1998).
Waste management produces large amounts of methane, so the potential of
alternative waste-management strategies to reduce this methanogenesis was
assessed in three communities in Finland. The study found that the
emissions from transportation of municipal wastes are small compared with
the emissions of landfills. Moreover, recovery of the landfill gas and its
use in energy production was found to be the most cost-effective way to
reduce the greenhouse impact of large landfills. Incinerating the
combustible portion of the municipal waste was also an efficient manner of
reducing greenhouse-gas emissions.
From Equipment to Infrastructure: Community Energy Management and
Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction, Mark Jaccard (Sch. of Resource
and Env. Mgt., Simon Fraser Univ., Vancouver, B.C., V5A 1S6, Canada), Lee
Failing, Trent Berry,Energy Policy 25 (13), 1065-1074
Four communities in British Columbia were analyzed for the period 1995
to 2010 to compare the energy-service costs, energy consumptions, and
emissions associated with a business-as-usual scenario and a
community-energy- management approach that coordinates land-use planning,
transportation management, site selection and design, and
energy-production and -delivery planning.
The study indicated that community energy management could reduce
energy-service costs and energy consumption by 15 to 30% and reduce CO2
and NOx emissions by 30 to 45%. The adoption of community energy
management did require new policy initiatives from all levels of
government. Those initiatives include changing the government of land-use
planning, providing infrastructure grants, providing information and
incentives to developers, changing zoning objectives, instituting
development charges to and tax incentives for developers, and coordinating
utilities choices of energy forms and delivery systems.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Mitigation Potential of Using
Animal Wastes in Asia, S. C. Bhattacharya (School of Env.,
Resources, & Devel., Asian Inst. of Technol., P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang,
Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand), J. M. Thomas, P. A. Salam,Energy
22 (11), 1079-1085 (1997).
Animal wastes produced in the developing countries of Asia are a major
source of methane and other greenhouse gases. This study estimated that
17,730 Gg of methane, 1,290,000 Gg of CO2, and 179 Gg of N2O
are emitted from animal wastes in the area each year. The researchers
noted that greenhouse-gas emissions of methane, CO2, and N2O
would be reduced 53.1, 19.5, and 61.1%, respectively, if those animal
wastes were used to produce biogas that would replace kerosene in
International Technology Transfer for Climate Change Mitigation and
the Cases of Russia and China, Eric Martinot (Energy & Resources
Grp., 310 Barrows, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA,
94720), J. E. Sinton, B. M. Haddad,Ann. Rev. Energy & Env.
22, 357-401 (1997).
This review of the opportunities and needs for technology transfer
related to the mitigation of climate change effects found a number of
similarities between Russia and China: Opportunities for the introduction
of energy efficiency and renewable energy; needs for economic reform and
restructuring; difficulties in responding to market conditions; policies
that interfered with international assistance; and requirements for
international joint ventures. Both countries need to build up their
capacities, which means that they have to enhance their market-oriented
capabilities. Russia needs new institutional responses, such as revised
commercial legal codes and housing-sector changes. China needs to put in
place policies and programs to upgrade its technological base and
encourage technology transfer.
CO2 Mitigation and Fuel Production, Meyer
Steinberg (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY, 11973),World Resource
Rev. 9 (4), 508-520 (1997).
Three processes produce methanol as a transportation fuel. The Hydrocarb
Process uses coal or natural gas and stores carbon. The Hynol Process uses
biomass or coal and natural gas. The Carnol Process uses natural gas and
CO2 recovered from power-plant emissions. Analysis showed that
the Hydrocarb Process is the least efficient in the production of methanol
and heat; the Hynol Process is the most efficient but has a higher rate of
CO2 emission. Addition of a Carnol system to a power plant can
reduce overall CO2 emissions by up to 56% when the methanol is
used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines, and this number jumps to
77% when the methanol is used in fuel-cell applications.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations