February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 12, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1999
Diurnal and Seasonal Variation of Carbon Dioxide Exchange from a
Former True Raised Bog, J. P. Nieveen, C. M. J. Jacobs, and A. F. G.
Jacobs,Global Change Biology 4 (8), 823-833 (1998).
A shallow peat layer overlain with vegetation (largely Molinia
caerulea) released 97 g C/m2-y to the atmosphere. Uptake outpaced
release during June, July, and August, only. Leaf area index and
temperature were the determining factors for net exchange of CO2;
temperature was the controlling factor of soil respiration.
Model Estimates of Methane Emission from Irrigated Rice Cultivation
of China, Yao Huang, R. L. Sass, and F. M. Fisher, Jr.,Global
Change Biology 4 (8), 809-821 (1998).
Methane emission from rice paddies was modeled as functions of
cultivated area, growth duration, grain yield, soil texture, and
temperature. The model was validated and calibrated for China. Results on
a provincial scale indicated that methane emission is most sensitive to
latitude and growing season (early, main, or late). Estimated emissions
for the different provinces ranged from 0.15 to 0.86 g/m2 and were in
close agreement with observed emissions.
Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in Moist and Dry Arctic Tundra During the
Snow-Free Season: Responses to Increases in Summer Temperature and Winter
Snow Accumulation, M. H. Jones et al.,Arctic and Alpine Research
30 (4) 373-380 (1998).
Summer air temperature was artificially increased about 2°C in
moist-tussock and dry-heath tundra in arctic Alaska, and winter snow
accumulation was artificially increased, shortening the growing season
about four weeks. Ecosystem CO2 flux was measured weekly to
quantify carbon gain or loss during the snow-free season. The elevated
temperatures increased the carbon emitted during the snow-free season 26
to 38% in ambient snow and 112 to 326% in artificially deep snow. When
winter carbon losses were also factored in, the data indicated that the
ecosystems examined are net sources of atmospheric carbon and that global
warming would increase carbon losses.
Litter Decomposition Rates in Canadian Forests, T. R. Moore et
al.,Global Change Biology 5 (1), 75-82 (1999).
The decomposition of plant tissues in 11 litter types from 18 sites
across Canada was found to be strongly related to the mean annual
temperature and precipitation at the sites, and the ratio of Klason lignin
to nitrogen in the original litter was found to be the most important
variable in determining litter quality. Climate change is expected to
increase current decomposition rates 4 to 7% because of higher
temperatures and precipitation. This effect will be slightly offset by the
higher lignin-to-nitrogen ratios produced by elevated CO2
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